Immunology 10

  1. Which type of infection are each of the APC's best at dealing with?
    • Dendritic cells - viral
    • Macrophages - bacterial
    • B-cells - molecular

    Hence why we need all 3 types and not simply 1.
  2. If the spleen exists to filter immunogens from the blood, and all lymph ultimately ends up in the blood, why are lymph nodes necessary?
    It takes hours to move lymph into the vascular system.
  3. True or False?
    Lymph vessels begin out in the tissues and contain fenestrations.
    • True.
    • Fenestrations facilitate movement of fluid into the lymph vessels.
  4. True or False?
    Unlike venous vessels, lymph vessels do not contain valves to prevent backflow.
  5. Cancer is most often a mass proliferation of which type of cell?
    Epithelial, although some connective tissue can mitose as well and can become cancerous on more rare occasions.
  6. If neurons do not mitose, how do we explain brain tumors?
    The cancer stems from the epithelial tissue of the brain's blood supply or glial cells.
  7. How does cancer tend to spread (metastasize)?
    In the lymphatic system.
  8. What are the 3 characteristics of a transformed cell?
    • 1.) Becomes free of body's regulatory & growth control
    • 2.) Nonfunctional in terms of service for the body
    • 3.) After a certain degree of accumulation, the transformed cells can easily dislodge from the original mass
  9. Once a tumor reaches __________ cells, it will outrun the immune system.
    • 1,000,000.
    • This is the size of a pencil eraser.
  10. What term describes the process of opening portals in capillaries for cells to leak through?
    • Diapedesis.
    • This is how mac's and cancer cells can enter various tissues from the blood stream.
  11. True or False?
    The breasts have a more extensive network of lymph than any other part of body.
    • True.
    • Producing milk is very energy expensive. Therefore, an extensive vascular supply, and venous and lymphatic drainage is needed (for removal of metabolic wastes).
  12. True or False?
    The nipples are actually an orifice, and therefore require a large number of lymph nodes.
  13. Stage 1 of mammary tissue maturation is characterized by...?
    Mammary buds develop in both males and females during fetal growth. Thus males technically can get breast cancer in rare cases. The mammary buds remain unchanged until puberty in females.
  14. Stage 2 of mammary tissue maturation is characterized by...?
    Female hormones at puberty cause mammary cells (s.s. epith) to increase intracellular secretory organelles (E.R., golgi, etc.).
  15. Stage 3 of mammary tissue maturation is characterized by...?
    In early pregnancy, human chorionic gonadotropin HCG (produced by the embryo during implantation) causes the secretory components of mammary tissue to prepare for lactation.
  16. Stage 4 of mammary tissue maturation is characterized by...?
    A few hours before and after birth, the anterior pituitary begins to secrete prolactin, causing the mammary tissue to produce milk. The posterior pituitary secretes oxytocin, causing "milk letdown."
  17. All other things equal, what group of individuals are statistically least likely to develop breast cancer.
    Since it the series of genetic mutations needed to cause cancer occurs fastest in immature mammary cells, young teenagers who become pregnant and therefore lactate are the least likely to develop breast cancer.
  18. Most breast cancers originate in the _______ of the breasts.
  19. What is any given female's chance of developing breast cancer?
    1/7 - 1/8
  20. A woman's first mammogram should be at age _____ if there is no family history of breast cancer, and age _____ if there is.
    • 1.) 40
    • 2.) 30
  21. About what size is the smallest detectable cancerous mass in a breast?
    6 mm x 6 mm x 6mm [or close to that]. Size of an eraser.
  22. Breast cancer-masses tend to become malignant at any dimension larger than _______.
    4.0 centimeters.
  23. A cancerous mass in the breasts can grow up to one centimeter every _________.
    6 months.
Card Set
Immunology 10
Immunology 10