Physical Activity and Nutrients

  1. The Essentials of Fitness
    • Flexibility
    • –The capacity of the joints to move through a
    • full range of motion
    • –The ability to bend and recover without injury

    • Muscle
    • strength
    • –The ability of muscles to work against
    • resistance
  2. The Essentials of Fitness
    • Muscle
    • endurance

    • –The ability of a muscle to contact repeatedly
    • within a given time without becoming exhausted

    Cardiorespiratory endurance

    • –The ability to perform large-muscle dynamic
    • exercise of moderate-to-high intensity for prolonged periods
  3. Benefits of Physical Fitness
    • Compared with unfit people,
    • physically fit people enjoy

    • –More restful
    • sleep

    • –Better
    • nutritional health

    • –Improved body
    • composition

    • –Improves bone
    • density

    • –Enhanced
    • resistance to colds and other infectious diseases

    • –Lower risk of
    • some kinds of cancer
  4. The Essentials of Fitness
    • A variety of physical
    • activities produces the best overall fitness

    • –People need to
    • work different muscle groups from day to day

    • –For balanced
    • fitness

    • Stretching
    • enhances flexibility

    • Weight training
    • develops muscle strength and endurance

    • Aerobic activity
    • improves cardiorespiratory endurance

    • Aerobic
    • –Requiring oxygen
    • –Aerobic activity
    • strengthens the heart and lungs by requiring them to work harder than normal to
    • deliver oxygen to the tissues
  5. Use of Fuels
    • Fuels that support body
    • activity are
    • –Glucose
    • From
    • carbohydrate

    • –Fatty acids
    • From fat

    • –To a small
    • extent, amino acids
    • From protein

    • During rest
    • –The body derives
    • about half energy from fatty acids

    Most of the rest from glucose

    A little from amino acids

    During physical activity

    • –The body adjusts
    • its fuel mix to use stored glucose of muscle glycogen

    • –As
    • the activity continues, messenger molecules, signal the liver and fat cells to
    • liberate their stored nutrients

    • –Primarily
    • glucose and fatty acids

    • Therefore – to effectively
    • “burn” fat we NEED exercise
  6. Use of Fuels
    Anaerobic Use of Glucose

    • –Glucose can yield energy quickly in anaerobic
    • metabolism
    • –Anaerobic breakdown of glycogen yields energy
    • to muscle tissue when energy demands outstrip the body’s ability to provide
    • energy aerobically

    • It does so by
    • lavishly spending the muscles’ glycogen stores

    • Lactic acid
    • –A compound produced during the breakdown of
    • glucose during anaerobic metabolism
  7. Vitamin E, Iron and Water
    • A few
    • exceptions:

    Vitamin E

    • –Vitamin E helps get rid of increased radicals
    • due to increased metabolism , athletes should consume more

    • Iron
    • - needed to
    • replenish oxygen carrying red blood cells
    • -especially needed in athletic women due to menstruation

    • Water
    • - constantly needing to be replaced in athletes
  8. Aerobic vs Anaerobic
    • Aerobic- oxygen
    • Anaerobic- no oxygen, when muscles don't have enough oxygen fermentation
    • sugar+no oxygen--> carbon dioxide+lactic acid+some energy
  9. EER (estimated energy requirements)
    • BMR+voluntary activities
    • BMR-basic physiology, breathing, heartbeat, kidney filtering, age, gender, weight
    • Voluntary activites- exercise, shower, walk, sex, swim, talking, movement
Card Set
Physical Activity and Nutrients