chapter 11

  1. mouth
    opening through which fool passes into body; breaks food into small particles by chewing (mastication) & mixing with saliva
  2. tongue
    consists mostly of skeletal muscle; attached in posterior region of mouth; provides for movement of food during chewing; directs food to pharynx for swallowing; major organ for taste & speech
  3. esophagus
    10 inch tube extending from pharynx to stomach
  4. digestive tract
    AKA > alimentary canal, gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Organs connect from mouth to anus forming continuous passageway. W/help of accessory organs it prepares food for use by body cells & eliminates solid waste products from body.
  5. palate
    separates nasal cavity from oral cavity.
  6. soft palate
    posterior portion of palate not suported by bone.
  7. hard palate
    anterior portion of palate supported by bone
  8. uvula
    sof V-shaped mass extending from soft palate; directs food into throat.
  9. pharynx / throat
    performs swallowing to pass food from mouth into esophagus
  10. stomach
    J-shaped sac that mixes & stores food. Secretes digestive chemicals & hormones for loal communication control.
  11. cardia
    part of stomach area around the opening of esophagus
  12. fundus
    uppermost domed portion of stomach
  13. body of stomach
    central portion of stomach
  14. antrum
    lower portion of stomach
  15. pylorus
    portion of stomach that connects to small intestine
  16. pyloric sphincter
    ring of muscle that guards (gate keeper) the opening between stomach & duodenum
  17. small intestine
    canal extending from pyloric sphincter to large intestine. villae & cappillaries absorb the food and take to cells
  18. duodenum
    first part of small intestine
  19. jejunum
    second portion of small intestine
  20. ileum
    third part of small intestine;connects to large intestine.
  21. large intestine
    canal extending from ileum to anus; recovery station of the H2O that the small intestine lets go of.
  22. cecum
    first portion of large intestine; blind U-shape
  23. colon
    2nd part of large intestine which is divided into four parts: ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon & sigmoid colon.
  24. rectum
    last part of large intestine; extends from sigmoid colon to anus
  25. anus
    sphincter (ringlike band of muscle fiber that keeps an opening tight) muscle at end of digestive tract
  26. salivary glands
    accessory organs of GI tract that produce saliva that flows into mouth
  27. liver
    accesory organ of GI tract that produces bile. Bile is necessar for digestion of fats. Liver performs many other functions concerned w/digestion & metabolism.
  28. bile ducts
    • passageways that carry bile
    • 1) hepatic duct carries bile FROM liver
    • 2) cystic duct carries bile FROM gallbladder
    • #1 & #2 join to form #3 > common bile duct that carries bile TO duodenum.
    • #1, 2 & 3 are referred to collectively as the biliary tract.
  29. gallbladder
    small and saclike...stores bile
  30. pancreas
    produces pancreatic juice (who would have guesses?!) which helps digest all food types; also secretes insulin for carbohydrate metabolism.
  31. peritoneum
    serous saclike lining of abdominal & pelvic cavities
  32. appendix
    small pouch that has no function in digestion, attached to the cecum. AKA vermiform appendix.
  33. abdomen
    portion of body beteen thorax & pelvis
  34. an/o
    combining form for anus
  35. antr/o
    combining form for antrum
  36. cec/o
    combining form for cecum
  37. col/o and colon/o
    combining forms for colon (usually denoting the large intestine)
  38. duoden/o
    combining form for, yes I bet you guessed it, the duodenum!!!!
  39. enter/o
    combining form for intestine (usually denoting the small intestine)
  40. esophag/o
    please tell me you guessed correctly that this is the combining form for esophagus :)
  41. gastr/o
    combining form for stomach
  42. ile/o
    combining form for ileum
  43. jejun/o
    combining form for what??? YES it IS the jejunum!!!!!
  44. or/o or stomat/o
    combining forms for mouth
  45. proct/o or rect/o
    combining forms for rectum
  46. sigmoid/o
    I know its a stretch, but just remember this is the combining form for sigmoid colon!!!!!
  47. abdomin/o, celi/o, lapar/o
    combining forms for abdomen or abdominal cavity
  48. appendic/o
    oh come on, if you can't figure out what this is the combining form for, I'm not going to tell you!!!!
  49. cheil/o
    combining form for lip
  50. cholangi/o
    combining form for bile duct
  51. chol/e
    combining form for gall and bile
  52. choledoch/o
    combining form for COMMON bile duct
  53. diverticulo/o
    combining form for diverticulum, or blind pouch, extending from a hollow organ
  54. gingiv/o
    combining form for gum (think gingivitis and mouthwash commercials)!
  55. gloss/o or lingu/o
    combining form for tongue
  56. hepat/o
    combining form for liver
  57. herni/o
    combing form for hernia, or protrusion of an organ through membrane or cavity wall (yuck!)
  58. palat/o
    combining form for palate, imagine that!
  59. pancreat/o
    combining form for pancreas
  60. peritone/o
    combining form for peritoneum
  61. polyp/o
    common name for small polynesian man....just kiddin....combining form for polyp or small growth
  62. pylor/o
    combining form for pylorus or pyloric sphincter
  63. sial/o
    combining form for saliva or salivary gland
  64. hemi
    prefix meaning half
  65. pepsia
    suffix meaning digestion
  66. appendicitis
    inflammation of the good for nothing else besides becoming inflammed appendix
  67. cholangioma
    tumor of bile duct
  68. cholecystitis
    inflammation of gallbladder
  69. choledocholithiasis
    condition of stones in COMMON bile duct
  70. cholelithiasis
    condition of gallstones
  71. diverticulitis
    inflammation of a diverticulum
  72. diverticulosis
    abnormal conditionn of having diverticula
  73. esophagitis
    inflammatio of esophagus
  74. gastritis
    inflammation of stomach
  75. gastroenteritis
    inflammation of stomach and intestines
  76. gastroenterocolitis
    inflammation of stomach, intestines and colon
  77. gingivitis
    inflammation of gums
  78. hepatitis
    inflammation of liver
  79. hepatoma
    liver tumor
  80. palatitis
    inflammation of palate
  81. pancreatitis
    inflammation of pancreas
  82. peritonitis
    inflammation of peritoneum
  83. polyposis
    abnormal condition of multiple polyps in mucous membrane of intestine (especially colon) with high potential for malignancy.
  84. proctoptosis
    prolapse of rectum
  85. rectocele
    protrusion of rectum
  86. sialolith
    stone in salivary gland
  87. steatohepatitis
    inflammation of liver associated with excess fat; often caused by alcohol & can lead to cirrhosis
  88. uvulitis
    inflammation of uvula
  89. adhesion
    abnormal growing together of 2 surfaces that are normally separated (hence the use of the word "abnormal"!)..may occur after abdominal surgery.....surgical treatment = adhesiolysis or adhesiotomy
  90. anorexia nervosa
    eating disorder characterized by prolonged refusal to eat. Results in emaciation, amenorrhea & abnormal fear of becoming obese. Occurs primarily in adolescents & young adults.
  91. bulimia nervosa
    eating disorder involving gorging with food followed by purging using induced vomiting or laxative abuse (binging & purging)
  92. cirrhosis
    chronic liver disease w/gradual cell destruction & scar tissue formation; commonly caused by alcoholism
  93. abdominocentesis
    surgical puncture to remove fluid from abdominal cavity, AKA paracentesis
  94. abdominoplasty
    surgical repair of abdomen
  95. anoplasty
    surgical repair of anus
  96. antrectomy
    excision of antrum
  97. appendicectomy AKA appendectomy
    If you dont know this one you flunk the class!!!
  98. celiotomy
    incision into abdominal cavity
  99. cheilorrhaphy
    suture of lip
  100. cholecystectomy
    excision of gallbladder
  101. choledocholithotomy
    incision into COMMON bile duct to remove stone
  102. colectomy
    excision of colon
  103. colostomy
    creation of artificial opening into colon through abdominal wall for passage of stool. Creates mouth like opening in abdominal wall (AKA stoma). Can be permanent or temporary. Used as treatment for bowel obstruction, cancer or diverticulitis.
  104. diverticulectomy
    excision of a diverticulum
  105. enterorrhaphy
    suture of intestine
  106. esophagogastroplasty
    surgical repair of esophagus and stomach
  107. gastrectomy
    excision of stomach or part of stomach
  108. gastrojejunostomy
    creation of artificial openin between stomach and of Prof Pete's favorite spelling words!
  109. gastroplasty
    surgical repair of stomach
  110. gastrostomy
    creation of artifical opening into stomach through abdominal wall....they then insert tube into it to administer food when person cannot swallow.
  111. gingivectomy
    surgical removal of gum tissue (so much easier just to remember to floss!!)
  112. glossorrhaphy
    suture of tongue
  113. hemicolectomy
    excision of half of the colon
  114. herniorrhaphy
    suturing of a hernia (for repair....seriously, what else would it be for???)
  115. ileostomy
    creation of artificial opening into the ileum through the abdominal wall...creates mouth-like opening and is used for passage of stool. Treatment for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease or cancer.
  116. laparotomy
    incision into abdomen
  117. palatoplasty
    surgical repair of palate
  118. polypectomy
    excision of polyp
  119. pyloromyotomy
    incision into pyloric muscle
  120. pyloroplasty
    surgical repair of pylorus
  121. uvulectomy
    excision of uvula
  122. uvuolopalatopharyngoplasty
    surgical repair of uvula, palate & pharynx....used to correct obstructive sleep apnea
  123. anastomosis
    an opening created by surgically joining 2 structures, such as blood vessels or bowel segments.
  124. cholangiogram
    radiographic image of bile ducts
  125. cholangiography
    radiographic imaging of bile ducts; involves administration of contast media to outline the ducts
  126. cholecystogram
    radiographic image of gallbladder; oral cholecystogram can be used to dianose cholelithiasis, but US is preferred / most often choice to diagnose.
  127. CT colonography
    radiographic image of colon using CT scan / software
  128. esophagogram
    radiographic image of esophagus, using barium as contrast media. AKA esophagram or barium swallow.
  129. colonoscope
    instrument used for visual exam of colon
  130. colonoscopy
    visual exam of colon
  131. endoscope
    instrument used for visual exam within a hollow organ
  132. endoscopy
    visual exam within a hollow organ
  133. esophagogastroduodenoscopy
    visual exam of esophagus, stomach and duodenum....sounds like possibly another Prof Pete favorite spelling word!
  134. esophagoscope
    instrument for visual exam of esophagus
  135. esophagoscopy
    visual exam of esophagus
  136. gastroscope
    instrument used for visual exam of stomach
  137. gastroscopy
    visual exam of stomach
  138. laparoscope
    instrument used for visual exam of abdominal cavity. Also used for laparoscopic surgery instead of lapartomy. Cholecystectomy, herniorrhaphy, appendectomy & colectomy can be laparoscopically.
  139. laparoscopy
    visual exam of abdominal cavity
  140. proctoscope
    instrument used for visual exam of rectum
  141. proctoscopy
    visual exam of rectum
  142. sigmoidoscope
    instrument used for visual exam of sigmoid colon
  143. sigmoidoscopy
    visual exam of sigmoid colon
  144. upper GI series
    seires of radiographic images taken of the stomach and duodenum after barium is swallowed, ugh!
  145. abdominal
    pertaining to abdomen
  146. anal
    pertaining to anus
  147. aphagia
    without swallowing, inability to swallow
  148. colorectal
    pertaining to colon and rectal
  149. dyspepsia
    difficult digestion (often used to describe GI symptoms)
  150. dysphagia
    difficult swallowinng
  151. gastrodynia
    pain in stomach
  152. gastroenterologist
    physician who studies and treats diseases of stomach and intestines (GI tract & accessory organs)
  153. gastroenterology
    study of stomach and intestines OR branch of medicine that treats GI tract & its accessory organ diseases
  154. gastromalacia
    softening of the stomach
  155. glossopathy
    disease of tongue
  156. ileocecal
    pertaining to the ileum and cecum
  157. nasogastric
    pertaining to nose and stomach
  158. oral
    pertaining to mouth
  159. pancreatic
    pertaining to pancreas
  160. peritoneal
    pertaining to peritoneum
  161. proctologist
    physician who studies and treats diseases of rectum
  162. proctology
    study of rectum OR branch of medicince that treates disorders of rectum and anus
  163. rectal
    pertaining to rectum
  164. steatorrhea
    discharge of excessive amount of fat in stool....usually associated with malabsorption of fat in conditions such as chronic pancreatitis or celiac disease.
  165. stomatogastric
    pertaining to mouth and stomach
  166. sublingual
    pertaining to under the tongue
  167. ascites
    abnormal collection of fluid in peritoneal cavity
  168. emesis
    expelling matter from stomach through mouth, AKA vomitting or the more pretentious >>>vomitus!
  169. peristalsis
    involuntary wavelike contractions that propel food along the digestive tract.
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chapter 11
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