List the four subcategories of each level of stuttering:
1. Core behaviors
2. Secondary behaviors
3. Feelings and Attitudes
4. Underlying processes
Variables related to identification of Stutterers:
Frequency of disfluencies
Severity of occurrences
Types of disfluencies
Core behaviors of this level include no more than 10 disfluencies per 100 words, typically one-unit repetitions, interjections, revisions, and fluctuations in frequency.
Core behaviors of this level include changes reflecting increased TENSION, repetitions become more rapid and irregular in rhythm, pitch rises at the end of repetitions, fixed articulatory positions “blocks”.
Core behaviors of this level include more than 10 disfluencies per 100 words, often more than 2 units of repletion, more repetitions and prolongations than revision, and incomplete phrases.
Core behaviors of this level include blocks in which airflow or phonation are stopped, and repetitions and prolongations continue.
Core behaviors of this level include Long, Tense blocks with Tremor.
In this level of stuttering, there are not any secondary behaviors because there are not any primary behaviors.
Secondary behaviors in this level include stuttering being suppressed due to extensive avoidance and escape behaviors.
Secondary behaviors in this level include disfluencies that are loose and relaxed and no awareness of disfluencies.
Normal and Borderline do not include secondary behaviors.
Secondary behaviors in this level include escape behaviors to terminate blocks, and appears to anticipate blocks and uses avoidance behaviors to avoid words and situations.
Secondary behaviors in this level include intentional escape behaviors appearing and usually toward the end of a stutter. Secondary behaviors gradually occur earlier and earlier in the disfluencies.
At this level, the person does not evidence any concern , awareness, or embarrassment other than occasional surprise and frustration.
At this level, the person’s feelings and attitudes may just be awareness of speech being “difficult” at times, but does not have a negative view of oneself.
Feelings and attitudes at this level includes fear before stuttering, embarrassment during stuttering, and shame after stuttering.
At this level feelings of fear, shame, and embarrassment are very strong.
Underlying processes at this level include classical and operant conditioning.
Underlying processes at this level include developing grammar, syntax, pragmatics, and motor control.
Underlying processes at this level include the “constitutional predisposition” for speech and language processing deficits.
Underlying processes at this level include avoidance develop through avoidance conditioning and negative reinforcement.
Underlying processes at this level include cognitive negative self-concept which may pervade entire perception of oneself.
List Van Riper’s 5 Classifications of Secondary Behaviors:
Struggle and efforts to terminate the block including physical movements and vocal changes.
Attempts to avoid situations and words evocative of stuttering, including circumlocutions.
Delaying attempts at difficult words using interjections and stereotyped phrases.
Attempts at getting a “running start” at difficult words, usually through interjections and phrases.
Attempts at distracting oneself from upcoming words through physical movement or unnatural speech patterns.
If you were to give the paper and pencil tasks, can you make a diagnosis?
Will paper and pencil tasks tell you who is the stuttered and who is not?
Who are our “readers?”
Who are our “nonreaders?”
For older clients, which technique is the LEAST cognitive or stress.
For older clients, which technique is the MOST cognitive or stress.
For older clients, which technique is MIDDLE cognitive or stress.
For younger clients, a technique in which a briefcase is put up between the client and the clinician and client give clinicians instructions is known as what?
Disfluency that involves the use of the schwa vowel is known as what?
Regarding the analysis of behavioral data, if adaptation is getting higher, will the prognosis be better or worse?
If consistency is getting higher, will the prognosis be better or worse?
The overall severity of speech samples is based on consideration of :
Frequency of Disluencies, Severity of Instances, and Secondary Behaviors.