Repsiratory System

  1. What is the respiratory system?
    path for gas exchange between external environment and blood
  2. path
    nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
  3. alveoli
    O2 is exchanged for CO2
  4. breathing - diaphram
    diaphram contracts
  5. What tells the diaphragm to contract?
    medulla oblongata
  6. what type of muscle is the diaphragm?
    skeletal muscle
  7. contracted diaphram and chest cavity
    when diaphram contracts, chest cavity expands
  8. pressure in contracted diaphram
    negative gauge pressure
  9. nasal cavity function
    filters, moistens and warms incoming air
  10. what filters?
    hair traps dust particles
  11. what moistens?

    (also traps smaller dust particles)
  12. what warms the air?
  13. what then happens to the mucus?
    cilia moves it back to pharynx, so it can be spit or swallowed
  14. pharynx function
  15. larynx function
    voice box
  16. what prevents food from entering trachea?
  17. trachea splits into.....
    right and left bronchi
  18. bronchi branch off into
  19. Image Upload 1
  20. alveolus
    oxygen diffuses into capillary
  21. What happens after oxygen is in the capillary?
    oxygen is taken to red blood cells
  22. What do the RBC do in response?
    release CO2 which diffuses into alveolus
  23. Fate of that CO2?
    expelled upon exhilation
  24. O2 and CO2 diffusion
    O2 diffuses into capillaries

    CO2 diffuse out into alveoli
  25. What happens to the O2 in the blood?
    binds (reversibly) with hemoglobin
  26. what does O2 and hemoglobin form?
  27. structure of hemoglobin
    4 polypeptide subunits
  28. what's at the center
    Fe -

    attach to an organic molecule
  29. How many Fe atoms in hemoglobin, and how many can bind to an O2 molecule?
    4 Fe atoms

    each attach to 1 O2 molecule
  30. as O2 pressure increases, how does that affect O2 saturation of hemoglobin?
    increases sigmodially
  31. Image Upload 2
  32. What shifts curve to the right?
    • 1. increase in CO2 pressure
    • 2. [H+]
    • 3. increase temperature
  33. What does a shift to the right mean?
    lowering hemoglobin affinity for O2
  34. Does O2 or CO2 have more affinity for hemoglobin?
  35. O2 pressure in body tissue
    40 mmHg
  36. diffusion of O2 and CO2 between blood and tissues
    O2 diffuses to tissues

    CO2 diffuses to blood
  37. How is CO2 carried in the blood? (in what form)
    • most often as HCO3-
  38. How is CO2 + H2O -> HCO3- + H+
    carbonic anhydrase
  39. carbonic anhydrase is where in the blood?
    it's inside red blood cells (not in plasma)
  40. what diffuses in and out?
    HCO3- diffuses into the cell

    Cl- moves out of cell to balance out
  41. hyperventilation = loss of CO2
    decreases carbonic acid

    increase in pH
  42. carbonic anhydrase inhibitor does what?
    decreases rate of gas exchange
  43. cell respiration does what to blood pH
    releases CO2

    lowers blood pH
  44. capillary action during exercise
    capillaries dilate to deliver more O2 to tissues
  45. if [CO2] is greater in tissues than alveoli
    partial pressure of CO2 closer to tissue
Card Set
Repsiratory System
Repsiratory Sys.