1. Nutrition
    is the processes by which the body uses food for growth, energy, and maintenance.
  2. Dietary Intake record
    patient is asked to record every food eaten for a period of time usually for 1 week.
  3. 24-hours Dietary Recall
    involve asking the patient to recall all foods and beverages consumed in the last 24 hours.
  4. Food Diary
    the patient keeps record of food eaten and the reason for eating the food at the time.
  5. Physical Examination
    • Examination of the body
    • Measurements of body waist circumference
    • Anthropometric measurement
    • Body Mass Index- (BMI)
  6. high risk waist measurement M&W
    35 inches or more in women and 40 inches or more in men is considered high risk
  7. Anthropometric measurement
    height, weight and body size are measured and then compare to a standard table of norms for reference.
  8. Body Mass Index- (BMI)
    Provides a range to evaluate normal body weight.
  9. Normal range for BMI
  10. grade 1, grade 2, grade3 obesity-BMI numbers
    • Between 25-29.9 – grade 1 obesity
    • Between 30-40-grade 2 obesity
    • Above 40- grade3 obesity
  11. formula to Measure BMI
    weight(kg) / height (m2) = BMI
  12. Disadvantage of BMI
    BMI reflect total body weight but cannot differentiate the body content. Therefore an individual with greater muscle mass (like weight lifter) may appear to be obese.
  13. Albumin level
    albumin is a protein store in the body.
  14. Transferrin level
    is iron store
  15. Total Lymphocyte count (TLC)
    Decreases as protein stores become depleted hence leading to low immunity
  16. Functions of food
    • Provides energy
    • build and repair body tissues
    • Regulate body process
  17. Inadequate food intake
    • High risk of physical illness
    • Limited daily physical activities and mental capacity
    • Low immune system function
  18. Primary causes of nutritional deficiency
    • Lack of essential nutrient
    • Life style
    • Inability of the body to use a specific nutrient properly
  19. Digestion
    is the process of changing foods from a more complex form to a simpler form to be absorbed and used by body cells.
  20. Mechanical digestion
    starts from the mouth and it involves chewing, swallowing and peristaltic movement of the gastrointestinal tracts
  21. Chemical digestion
    occurs through the action of enzymes, which break large food molecules into smaller molecules.
  22. carbohydrates are reduced into
    simple sugars such as glucose, for absorption.
  23. Sorbitol
    a naturally occurring sugar that is not absorbed, may cause diarrhea in children.
  24. Protein digestion begins
    and is completed in the
    proteins are broken down into
    • in the stomach
    • small intestine
    • amino acids
  25. Fat digestion begins
    fats are reduced
    • in the stomach but occurs primarily in the small intestine
    • to fatty acids and glycerol for absorption.
  26. Absorption
    the process by which end products of digestion, are absorbed form the small intestine into circulation
  27. Metabolism
    This is the use of nutrient by the body cells to produce energy and for building and repairing body tissue
  28. Catabolism
    the breakdown of food molecules into carbon dioxide and water leading to the release of energy.
  29. Anabolism
    the process by which food molecules are used to build and repair body tissue.
  30. energy need of the body are based on three factors
    • Physical activity
    • Basal metabolism
    • Thermal effects of food
  31. Basal metabolism:
    the energy required for the body to sustain life while on a resting state
  32. Thermal effects of food
    energy required for the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of foods.
  33. Measurement of energy for
    • Carbohydrate: 4 calories per gram
    • Fat: 9 calories per gram
    • Protein: 4 calories per gram
  34. Total number of calories needed per day
    Moderately active man
    Moderately active woman
    • Moderately active man: 20.5 calories per pound (0.45 kg) of ideal weight
    • Moderately active woman: 18 calories per pound (0.45 kg) of ideal weight
  35. 1 cup =FL, mL
    • 8 fluid ounces
    • 240 or 250 ml
  36. 1oz =mL
  37. Apathetic
    uninterested in anything
  38. Cachexia
    weight loss and muscle wasting( muscle mass become thin)
  39. Edema
    due to deficiency of plasma protein hence-Leg and Abdomen- swollen
  40. Monosaccharides
    It contains single sugars, which require no digestion and are easily absorbed into the bloodstream.
  41. three types of Monosaccharides
    glucose, fructose, galactose
  42. Disaccharides
    double sugars, which must be broken down into monosaccharide before absorption.
  43. 3 types Disaccharides
    • sucrose-which is the table sugar
    • lactose-present in milk
    • maltose-
  44. Polysaccharides
    complex carbohydrates composed of may sugar units
  45. Polysaccharides 3 types
    • Starches
    • Glycogen
    • Dietary fiber such as cellulose
  46. Functions of Carbohydrate
    Carbohydrate is the major source of energy. It provides about 4 calories/ gram. Most importantly glucose is the only form of energy that can be used by the central nervous system (CNS.)
  47. Proteins-sparing effect
    allows protein to be used for tissue building rather than for energy production.
  48. ketones
    Incomplete fat metabolism
  49. Sources of Carbohydrate
    bread, cereal, pasta, rice, corn, potatoes
  50. Sources of Carbohydrate
    table sugar, sugar cane, and molasses
  51. Sources of Carbohydrate
    fruit(glucose), honey, milk (lactose)
  52. three enzymes that act on Carbohydrate
    sucrose, lactase, and maltase
  53. Carbohydrates must be broken down into
  54. Monosaccharides are carried to the
    the liver
  55. Excess glucose is stored as
  56. The hormone glucagon regulates the conversion of
    glycogen back to glucose
  57. The speed with which food raises the blood glucose is
    is the glycemic index
  58. Hypoglycemia in people who do not have diabetes can be managed with
    from a diet that is
    • with small feedings approximately every 3 hours
    • low in sugar and high in fiber
  59. Excessive Carbohydrate consumption
    • Obesity
    • Tooth decay and gum disease Increases dental caries
    • Causes increase in blood cholesterol and triglycerides
  60. Galactosemia
    Lack of liver enzyme that converts galactose to glucose
  61. Lactase deficiency
    Lack of lactase (the enzyme that breaks down lactose {milk sugar})
  62. Dietary fiber
    refers to the non-digestible part of carbohydrate food materials in plant.
  63. 2 types of dietary fibers
    water- soluble and insoluble fibers.
  64. Insoluble fibers
    are found mostly in vegetables, wheat, and most whole grains. very effective in softening the stool
  65. Soluble Fibers
    They are found in fruits (orange juice, lemon, grape), oats , barley and legumes.
  66. Essential amino acids
    amino acids that the body cannot manufacture and therefore must be supplied in the diet;
  67. Nonessential amino acids
    amino acids that the body can manufacture and therefore are not as important in the diet.
  68. Functions of protein
    Aid metabolic functions
    to manufacture chemical
    • combine with iron to form hemoglobin.
    • o Enzymes for digestion
    • o Hormones for regulatory function
    • o Neurotransmitter for normal function of the
    • neurons
  69. Protein is present in the blood plasma where it is called
    plasma protein
  70. plasma protein various function
    • Carrier/transport
    • Help to regulate fluid balance
  71. Globin
    is the protein in hemoglobin that bind to iron which in turns bind to oxygen to be transported in the plasma
  72. Digestion of protein enzyme
  73. Protein Digestion is completed in the small intestine by three enzymes
    trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase
  74. The end products of protein metabolism
    are hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, water, uric acid, and urea.
  75. Complete proteins
    They are mainly
    • foods that contain all eight essential amino acids in amounts capable of meeting human requirements.
    • animal sources
  76. Incomplete proteins
    these are mainly
    • foods that lack one or more of the essential amino acids
    • plant sources
  77. Complementary proteins
    foods that, when eaten together, supply the essential amino acid that is missing
  78. The recommended daily protein intake for adults
    0.8g/kg of body weight (15% of total caloric intake).
  79. Insufficient intake of protein Persons at greatest risk
    • chronically ill, elderly on fixed incomes,
    • low-income group,
    • and strict vegetarians
  80. Indications for high-protein diet:
    • Burns and massive injuries
    • Mild to moderate liver disease
    • Nephrosis to replace protein lost in the urine
  81. Indications for low-protein diets:
    • Liver failure
    • Kidney failure
  82. essential fatty acid mostly linoleic acid, which is found primarily in
    vegetable oils
  83. Saturated fats
    They are usually from
    are fat whose chemical bond are completely filled or saturated with hydrogen.
  84. 2 types of cholesterol
    • Low density lipoprotein
    • high density lipoprotein
  85. Saturated fat tends to increase blood
    cholesterol level
  86. Unsaturated fats
    the chemical structure has one or more places where hydrogen can be added; they are less dense, usually liquid at room temperature (with the exception of margarine), and are chiefly from plant sources
  87. Monounsaturated fats have
    one place where hydrogen is missing.
  88. Polyunsaturated fats have
    two or more places where hydrogen is missing.
  89. Hydrogenation
    the process of adding hydrogen to a liquid or polyunsaturated fat and changing it to solid or semisolid state
  90. Digestion of fat enzymes
    gastric lipase
  91. pancreatic lipase changes the emulsified fats
    into fatty acids and glycerol
  92. Saturated fats come from
    animal sources
  93. Unsaturated fats come from
    vegetables, nuts or seed sources
  94. omega 3 fatty acids
    which help to lower bad cholesterol (LDL) and increase good cholesterol (HDL)
  95. Indications for low-fat diet
    • Cardiovascular disease
    • Gallbladder disease
    • Mal-absorption syndrome
    • cystic fibrosis
    • pancreatitis
    • Obesity
  96. Cholesterol
    waxy, fat-like substance that is made in the body by the liver.
  97. Our bodies need cholesterol to
    • Maintain healthy cell walls hence is found virtually in every cell of he body especially brain and nerve tissues
    • Make hormones-the body's chemical messengers. Make vitamin D
    • Make bile acids, which aid in fat digestion
  98. Cholesterol is carried in the blood to cell
    where they will be needed by special carriers called
  99. two types of lipoprotein
    • high density Lipoprotein (HDL)
    • Low density Lipoprotein (LDL)
  100. HDL, or “good” cholesterol, carries
    cholesterol away from the arteries and back to the liver for removal from the body.
  101. LDL, or “bad” cholesterol, tends to
    circulate in the bloodstream and form plaque on the inner walls of arteries.
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