1. DiGeorge Syndrome
    • deletion chromosome22
    • absent thymus, parathyroids, cardiac and facial abnormalities
    • opportunistic infections
    • tetany due to hypocalcemia
  2. First signal of T cell activation
    Binding of TCR + Cd4 or Cd8 to MHC + antigen
  3. Second signal of T cell activation
    binding of B7 on APC with CD28 on T cell
  4. Activation of T-cells leads to the production of what 3 transcription factors
    NFAT, NF-KB, AP-1
  5. NFAT, NF-KB, and AP-1 lead to what expression
    • IL-2 and high affinity IL-2R in the T-cell
    • IL-2 binding activates JAK/STAT resulting in synthesis of cyclins which leads to T-cell proliferation
  6. CTLA-4 is what
    receptor on activated T cells binds B7 on APC, inhibits proliferation
  7. Cyclosporin and Tacrolimus
    inhibit calcineurin, prevent NFAT generation, prevent IL-2 expression, suppress immune system
  8. Th1
    1. target
    2. activating cytokines
    • 1. bacteria, fungus, virus
    • 2. IL-12 and IFN-y
    • activated macrophages secrete IL-12 activate NK cells, they secrete IFN-y activate Th to Th1 cells they secrete IFN-y
  9. Th2
    1. target
    2. activating cytokines
    • 1. Parsites and allergens
    • 2. IL-4
    • IL-4 is secreted by Th cells in the absense of another IL, it is also secreted by mast cells when parasites are around
  10. Th17
    1. target
    2. activating cytokines
    • 1. unknown
    • 2. IL-6 and TGF-B
    • IL-6 is a proinflammatory and TGF-B is secreted at mucosal surfaces, they lead t cells to secrete IL-21 which leads to Th17 conversion
  11. effector Th1 cells
    1. secrete
    2. function
    • 1. IL-2, IFN-y, TNF, CD40L
    • 2. intracellular infections, CMI response
    • -activate macrophages (IFN-y and CD40L)
    • -stimulate Bcells to produce IgG opsinizing antibodies (IFN-y)
    • -activate CTL's (IL-2 and IFN-y)
    • -increase CAM and chemokine expression on vascular endothelium (TNF)
  12. effector Th2 cells
    1. secrete
    2. function
    • 1. IL-4, IL-13 (same fcn) IL-5, IL-10
    • 2. stimulate Bcells to produce non-opsonizing ab IgE, protect against helminthic infections, inhibit macrophages
    • -if Th2 response dominates when Th1 should problems occur (leprosy)
  13. effector Th17 cells
    1. secrete
    2. function
    • 1. IL-17, IL-21, IL-22
    • 2. aid in inflamation response
  14. effetor Tc cells (CTL's)
    function and 2 methods
    • kill infected cells or cancer cells
    • 1. degranulation
    • 2. Fas-FasL
  15. explain degranulation from CTL's
    • perforin monomers form channel on cell
    • granzymes (serine esterases) enter cell and activate apoptotic patway
  16. Explain Fas-FasL
    Fas on all nucleated cells interacts with FasL on CTL to activate the apoptotic caspase pathway
  17. 2 types of memory T cells and function
    • 1. Central memory Tcells, home in secondary lymphoid, proliferate quickly on exposure and generate more T cells
    • 2. Effector memory Tcells, home in peripheral tissues, secrete cytokines on activation but don't proliferate
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