Social Research

  1. Purpose of research (Why): What does a researcher try to accomplish?
    Less sophisticated More sophisticated
  2. What are the types of study?
  3. 1. Exploratory
    • 2. Descriptive
    • 3. Explanatory
    • 4. Predictive
  4. Criteria for establishing causation ( relative complete):
    • Correlation
    • Time order
    • Ruling out other causes
    • Making sense
  5. An empirical relationship between two variables such that changes in one are associated with changes in the other or particular attributes of one variable are associated with particular attributes of the other.
  6. A casual relationship exists unless the cause precedes the effect in time.
    Time order
  7. You need a research; you need a study to make sense.
    Making sense
  8. Two variables appear to be related because both are caused by a 3rd variable.
    A coincidental statistical correlation between two variables, shown to be caused by some third variable.
    Spurious relationship
  9. The cause must be present for the effect to occur.
    Necessary cause
  10. The cause will definitely lead to the effect
    Sufficient cause
  11. Taking require courses get you a degree is a necessary cause?
  12. Taking require courses get you a degree is a sufficient cause?
  13. Unit of analysis (Who): Who is to be described or analyzed.
    • 1. Individual
    • 2. Group/organization
    • 3. Social artifact
  14. An object that is given meaning;Categories that can be analyze; paint, arquitecture, culture, advertisement, magazine,
    Social articfact
  15. Drawing conclusions about individuals based solely on the information about groups or geographic areas.
  16. Ecological fallacy:
  17. In the rural area there are higher percentage rate of drunk drivers arrested.Rural area people are most likely to be drunk. Is an example of?
  18. Ecological fallacy
  19. Individualistic fallacy
    Use individual exceptions to deny general patterns.
  20. I know an 90 yr old man that always smoke and doesn’t have cancer and hasn’t die, so smoke doesn’t cause cancer. Is an example of?
    Individualistic fallacy
  21. Time dimension
    • Cross-sectional studies
    • Longitudinal studies
  22. Data are gathered at one point in time.
    Cross-sectional studies
  23. A study based on observations representing a single point in time. Exploratory and descriptive studies are often cross-sectional. Involves observations of a sample, or cross section, of a population or phenomenon that are made at one point in time.
    Cross-sectional studies
  24. Cross-sectional studies advantages?
    quick and inexpensive
  25. Disadvantages of cross sectional studies?
  26. Causal inferences severely restricted
  27. Longitudinal studies:
    • Trend study
    • Cohort study
    • Panel study
  28. Repeated cross-sectional design which
    i) contains same variables
    ii) involves an independent sample from the same population.
    Every senior in college
    Trend study
  29. Examine specific sub-populations (e.g., born in 1945) as they change over time.
    A sub-population defined by a time period (in a specific year or interval of years)
    Share time frame: - Graduation year 1998 -Year marry 1990
    Cohort study
  30. Examine the same set of people repeatedly over a period of time.
    Panel study
  31. The cause will definitely lead to the effect (If X is there, it guarantees Y to be there.)
    Sufficient cause
  32. Is marry (X) a sufficient cause of divorce (Y)?
  33. Is pregnancy (X) a sufficient cause of abortion (Y)?
  34. Is living (X) a sufficient cause of abortion (Y)?
  35. It is a necessary cause to be women in order to become pregnant.
  36. It is marriage a necessary cause in order to divorce.
Card Set
Social Research
Research Desing