a spectrum of community suspervision strategies that vary greatly in terms of their supervision level and treatment capacity, ranging from diversion to sort term duration in a residential community facility.
when an individual who should have received probation is sentenced to a harsher intermediate sanction only because that sanction is available, not because the offender requires more intensive supervision.
wedening the net
a sanction in the community in which the convicted offender lives at thefacility and must be employed, but can leave the facility for a limited purpose and druation if pre approved. Examples include halfway houses, prerelease centers, restitution centers, drug treatment facilities, and work release centers.
residential community corrections facilities
the oldest most common type of community residential facility for probationers or parolees who require a more structured setting than would be abailable if living independently.
a brief period of incarceration followed by a term of supervised probation. Also called shock probation, shock parole, intermittent imprisoinment, or split sentence.
a form of shock incarceration that involeves a military style regimen designed to instill discipline in young offenders.
a type of residential community facility specifically targeted for drug offenders, offenders who are alcoholics, and or drug addicts who are amenable to treatment.
when an offender with subustance abuse problem returns to using alcohol or drugs
a program in which offenders who reside in a facility (a community facility, jail, or prison) are released into the comminty only to work or attendeducation classes or both.
a type of residential community facility specifically targeted for property or first time offenders who owe victim restitution or community service
a 120 day alternative to prison that teaches job skills and decisions making using a cognitive behavioral approach, followed by intensive supervison probation.
work ethic camp
a form of probation that stresses intensive monitoring, close supervision, and offender control
intensive supervision probation
a community based sanction in which offenders serve there sentence at home. Offenders have curfews and many not leave their home except for employment and correctional treatment purposes. Also called home detention or home confinement
An intermittent or continuous radio frequency signal transmitted through a land line telephone or wireless unit into a receiver that determines whether the offender is or is not at home.
home based electronic monitoring
a correctional technology used as a tool in intensive supervision probation, parole, day reporting, or home confinement, using a radio frequency or satellite technology to trach offender where abouts using a transmitter and receiver.
when a supervising officer uses a hand held remote receiver to wirelessly verify and offenders phyisical location.
remote location monitoring
a system that uses 24 military satellites orbiting the earth to pinpoint the offendersexact location intermittently or at all times
global positioning system
a real time GPS system that transmits data through wireless networkscontinuously at a rate of once or twice per minute. A phone line continually callsareportingstation to update the offenders location, which is tracked by a computer.
instant and immediate access via a supervising officers internet connection to pinpoint the ecact location of offenderson GPS monitoringwith a 30 second delay
a GPS system that temporarly stores location data that is downloadedthrough a landline phone once every 24 hours or at specific times when the offender is home
Exact locationsthe offender is prohibited from being in or near
exact locations, such as employment, school, or an appintment, wherethe offender is requiredto be at a certain time
nonresidential programs typically used for defendantson pretrial release, for convictedoffenders on probation or parole, or as an increased sanction for probation orparole violators. Services are provided in one central location, and offenders must check in daily.
day reporting centers
a philosophy of using the community to control and reduce crime throught communtiy policing, community courts, restorative justice and broken windows probtion.
various sentencing philosophies and proactices that emphasize the offender taking responsibility to repair the harm done to the victim and to the surrounding community. Includes forms of vicitim offender mediation, reparation panels, circle sentencing, and nometary sanctions.
court ordered payment by the offender to the victim to cover tangible losses that occurred during or following the crime
unpaid labor for the public to compensate society for harm done by the offense of conviciton
a fixed monetary sanction defined by statue andimposed by a judge, depending on the seriousness of the crime.
a state fund that dispenses compensation to victims of violent crime and is paid for by offenders who are convicted
victim compensation fund
a government seizure of property that ws illegally obtained, was acquired with resources that were illegally obatined, or was used in connection with an illegal activity.
fines that are calculated by multiplying a percentage of the offenders daily wage by the number of predefined punishment units (the number of punishmnets units depend on the seriousness of the crime)
a monetary amount imposed by the court to assist in administering the criminal justice system by the offenders repayment of debt accrued by the investigation, prosecution, and supervision of the case.
a type of release from prison without correctional supervision because the full sentence has been served behind bars. Also known as "maxing out" or "killing your number"
conditional release to the cimmunity under a determinate sentence that is automatic at the expiration of the minimum term of sentence minus any credited time off for good behavior
conditional release because members of a paroleboardhave decided that eh prisoner has earned the privilage while still remaining under supervision of an indeterminate sentence
release of a convicted offender from a penal or correctional institution, unde the continual custody of the state, to serve the remainder of his or her sentence in the community under supervision, either by discretionry or mandatory release stipulations.
french for "word of honor," from which the English word parole is derived.
a British naval captain who served as governor of the penal colony on Norfolk Island, who institued a system of early release that was the forerunner of modern parole. Maconochie is know as the "father of parole"
The forced exile of convicted criminals. England transported convicted criminal to the American colonies until the Revolutionary war and afterward to Australia
a license or permit given to convict as a reward for good conduct, which allowed him to go at large and work to go atlarge and work for himself before his sentence expired, subject to certain restristionsand revocable upon subsequent misconduct. A forerunner of parole.
Ticket of leave
A theory of human motivation organized by Maconochie that granted credits forgood behavior. Convictsused the credits or marks to purchase either goods or time (reduction in sentence)
the notorious British supermax penal colony 1,000 miles off the coast of Austrailia that housed the most incorrigible prisoners.
An irish prison reformer who established an early system of parole based on Alexander Maconochie's experiments with the mark system.
Sir Walter Crofton
Developed in Ireland by Sir Walter Crofton, the ifish system involved graduated levels of institutional control leading up to releaseunder conditions similar to modern parole. The American penitentiarieswere partially based on the irish system.
the american prison reformer who introuduced modern correctional methods, including parole, to the Elmira Reformantory in New York in 1876
zebulon r. Brockway
The conceptthat given proper care and treatment criminals canbe curedinto productive law abiding citzens. This approach suggests that people commit crimes because of influences beyond theircontrol, such as poverty, injustice, and racism.
the concept that the goal of correctionsshould be to punish offenders because they deserve to be punished and that punishment should be commensurate with the seriousness of the offense.
the correctional practice based on the concept of just deserts and even handed punishment. the justice model calls for fairness in criminal sentencing, in that all people convicted of a similar offense will receive a like sentence. this model ofcorections relies on determinatesentencing and or abolition of parole.
the conditional release from prison to the community of a prisoner with a terminalillness who does not pose an undue risk to public safety