History 284

  1. Newton believed that he was
    how god created the world
  2. Most of Newtons Manuscripts are about what
    The scriptures
  3. Europeans wanted to do what?
    Determine the order of nature
  4. 17th Century promoted experimentation
  5. Royal Society of london promoted what?
    Experimental Learning
  6. The Academy of Science in Paris tried to do what
    Harness the power of science for the service of the state.
  7. What were the benefits of the Royal Society
    • They could determine who had discovered what first
    • Whoever was published first would be given credit
  8. What could the Royal Society Do?
    Prove or disprove claims
  9. French system was more systematic than the English what were they more concerned with? What did they invent
    • Invention.
    • Patents
  10. Boyle
    One of the great scientists of the 17th century. Left money in his will to promote christianity as the only true religion. Used the latest science to prove creationism.
  11. Boyle Lectures
    • All the people that gave the sermons were clergy
    • Usually directly connected to Isaac Newton
    • Published the sermons as books
    • Became the most popular books in England
  12. Desceguliers
    • Originally French
    • Became a minister in the anglican church
    • Was a disciple of Isaac Newton
    • Newton used him to replicate and demonstrate his optical experiments
    • Experiments became more and more entertaining
    • People paid huge amounts of money to see these experiments
  13. Joseph Priestly
    • Was a minister in the Unitarian Church
    • Considered a dissenter
    • A mob burned his house and lab
    • One of the two great chemists of the 18th century
    • Discovered oxygen
    • Laid the foundation for the new science chemistry
  14. Lavoisier
    • The other great chemist of the 18th century
    • Tried to show the order of chemicals in the natural world
    • Was executed during the French Revolution for being associated with the monarchy
  15. Robert Chambers 1844
    • -interested in
    • phrenologyàcharacter can
    • be determined by the shape of the head

    • -published a
    • children’s series revolving around education

    • -found himself
    • in financial difficulties until 1844 when he published Vestiges of Creation

    • -between 1844 and 1860 (publication of Origin of Species) Chambers
    • published 11 editions
  16. Adam Sedgwick 1815
    • -well known
    • geologist, also known to Darwin

    • -Sedgwick
    • detested the idea that our character was materially based

    • -infuriated
    • by the Vestiges of Creation

    • -Sedgwick was a
    • Victorian gentlemanàChambers
    • stood for everything Sedgwick despised
  17. Reverend Malthus
    • -wrote
    • Principles of Population in 1799

    • -compared
    • land use to population growth, determined that a struggle was inevitable

    • -land
    • use increased gradually, population grew geometrically, diff bw the 2=deficit

    • -thought human
    • kindness could actually make things worse (welfare) bc it allowed people to
    • keep pumping out kids

    • -Darwin read
    • this book and applied it to the animal and vegetable world (says it early in
    • Origin)
  18. Herbert Spencer,
    • -published
    • principles of psychology in 1855

    • -suggested
    • that psychology was a natural extension of naturalism

    • -believed
    • that an organism’s ability to think was intrinsically tied to it’s ability to
    • evolve

    • -thought
    • helped animals adapt to changing environment
  19. Alfred Russell
    • -Wallace was a
    • school teacher and a naturalist who was familiar with many of the same works as
    • Darwin

    • -Wallace had
    • also been involved in field research (amazon valley collecting beetles and
    • butterflies, also went to the Malay archipelago to collect more samples for
    • collectors)

    • -it
    • was there that he deduced his principle of natural selection while in a fever

    • -suggested
    • that evolution of new species was a distinct possibility

    • -Wallace was
    • probably the guy who provoked Darwin to sit down and finish his opus

    • -1858 Wallace
    • wrote Darwin asking whether or not Darwin was going to talk about humans in
    • Origin of Species
  20. Why did Darwin avoid writing about humans
    • Because of how heated the prejudice was about the ideas
    • Darwin never actually never mentions humans in the origin of the species
  21. Where did the majority of Darwin's info for the Origin of the species come from?
    Not the Galapagos, but observations of domesticated animals in Europe
  22. What did Darwin state about species
    That they evolved over time as their environments changed. Survival of the fittest is not Darwin's phrase
  23. Darwin believed that no population could thrive without the introduction of varaities
  24. What does natural selection do?
    Preserves the strongest varieties in any species
  25. Thomas Henry Huxley
    • -wrote a book entitled “The Position of Man” after Darwin published
    • his Origin
    • -Was a defender of evolution
    • -Studied the first Neanderthals skull
  26. What did the Darwin argue in the Descent of Man?
    Where did he trace the origin of humans
    • That all things human could be explained through evolutionary theory
    • Back to apes
    • Believed that without competition man could not improve.
  27. Industrial Revolution in America
    • Americans did not want ornate machines
    • They wanted functional and portable
  28. America had a rebellious attitude what did this lead to?
    Freedom in innovation.
  29. What was the problem with England during the industrial revolution?
    Was a prisoner of its technological past
  30. Atributes of American machines
    • More portable
    • Simplicity
    • Cheaper
    • Efficient
  31. What else were american machines known for?
    • Interchangeable parts
    • Belt system for transferring power
    • Used a lot of water power
    • Loss of power due to belts was not a big issue
    • Period of development of monopoly capitalism
  32. British Manufacturing process
    • Gear system
    • Steam for power
    • Power was expensive therefore they needed efficiency
    • Not many fast flowing rivers in UK
  33. American Labour
    • There was a shortage of skilled labour
    • Spent a lot of money on training
  34. What idea defined the 18th century
    Wanted to free themselves form scripture
  35. Linnaeus
    • Devised a system for classifying plants based on their reproductive properties
    • A large number of plants were returning to Europe in trading vessels
    • Did not like to travel
    • Needed categories of where to put things
    • Was looking for a design of the natural world during creation by god
    • Believed that there was a pair of plants in the begining
  36. John Ray
    Believed that plants had sex's
  37. Buffon
    • Was director of the gardens of the Kings of France
    • Published a book on the systems of nature
    • Suggested something revolutionary DEGENERATION precursor to evolution
  38. Buffon Continued
    • Was interested in diversity of plants
    • Suggest that life multiplies by reproduction
    • Formed on of the central theories of evolution
  39. 18th Century Meanings of enlightenment
    • Was a period of revolution
    • 1688 Glorious Revolution in england
    • 1789 French Revolution
    • American Revolution
  40. Baconism
    Knowledge could be useful and improve the world
  41. John Harris
    • Boyle lecturer
    • Author
    • Clergyman
    • Gave free lectures on Mathematics, Bookkeeping
    • Most important were navigational lectures
    • Was followed by a series of people
  42. Desaguiler
    • French refugee
    • Father was a minister
    • Was kicked out of France for being a protestant
    • Went to oxford
    • Put on Scientific demonstrations for money
    • Drama and amusement were important parts of being a successful lecturer
  43. Henry Beighton
    • Was a friend of Desagulier
    • Ran a technical journal
    • Was interested i steam engines
  44. Steam Engines by Savery
    • Earliest was designed by Savery
    • Took out a patent
    • Showed his invention to the Royal society
    • Began to use engines to drain the Royal mines
    • Did not work that well
  45. Necomen steam engine
    • First sucessful steam engine
    • Desaguliers paid attention and began to lecture on the steam engine
  46. First civil Engineer
    • John Smeaton
    • 1754 Became a member of the Royal Society
    • Was interested in building canals and draining land
    • Was interested in the study of industrial machaines
    • Wanted to improve the efficiency of water wheels
    • Took him three decades to complete his analysis of the water wheel
  47. The greatest innovator for 18th century power devices was?
    • James Watt
    • Began as a instrument maker
    • Went to London in 1755
    • Ran into trouble with guilds
    • Shipped lots of devices back to Scotland
  48. What instigated James Watts invention of the refined steam engine
    • Was ased to repair a table top neucoman engine
    • Realized the problems with the engine
    • The seal
    • Heating and cooling the chamber is very inefficient
  49. How did James Wattt refine the steam engine
    • More elaborate
    • used a series of valves to control the steam
    • Didn't condense the steam in the chamber
    • Took out a patent in 1769
    • Worked with an Industrialist Bolton
  50. Boulton
    • Made buttons and buckles
    • Became a coin maker
    • Was a very good businessman
    • Market for engines was growing rapidly
    • Did not sell their engines
    • Took a royalty for the use of the engine
    • Was a basis for the first industrial revolution
    • Was a good chemist
  51. Hale published on?
    • Haemastatics, the dynamics of blood flow in animals
    • Vegtable Statics, what did vegtables produce, interested in the gasses given off by plants
    • Called into question the nature of chemical reactions
  52. Phlogiston
    Theory that all the bodies that experience combustion were composed of a common principle that was flammable that was released through heat
  53. How was phlogiston released
    • Flame
    • Additional heat
    • Combustion ceased when all the phlogiston was released
  54. Joseph Priestly
    • Was a strong supporter of the theory of phlogiston
    • He discovered oxygen
    • Explored the nature of chemical reactions
    • Experimented on the combustion of chemicals
    • Calcination
    • Decomposition
    • Reduction by charcoal
  55. What did Joseph Priestly discover
    • Carbon dioxide and this was called fixed air
    • Most resperable portion of the air was oxygen
    • He discovered that oxygen was better than regular air
  56. Lavoiser
    • Over tuned phlogiston theory
    • Was the second great chemist of the 18th century
    • Came to the exact opposite conclusions as Priestly
    • Defined the nomenclature of the chemical world
    • Started a chemical revolution in France
  57. Lavoisier
    • Was associated with the Royal Commission that investigated Mesmer
    • Was interested in discovering the properties of newly discovered airs
    • Looked at the material balance of chemical reactions
    • Found that in combustion the products weighed more than the reactants
    • Disproved phlogiston
    • Was able to measure the amount of oxygen used
  58. What did Cavendish do
    • Independently proved Lavouisier's experiments
    • Cavendish and Lavouisier got credit for discover of oxygen
  59. Guyton de Morveau
    • Was looking for a way to classify chemicals
    • Looked to Linnaeus who had classified plants
    • was done by Lavoisier in 1789
  60. Beddos
    • Was interested in electricity
    • Generated it by primitive batteries
  61. What did Joseph Priestly think about the Monarchy
    • He wanted to eliminate it
    • Was a victim of a mob
    • fled to Pennsylvania
  62. Karl Vough
    -All life was an amalgamation of chemical and mechanical reactions
  63. Moleschott
    • -Lecturer
    • -Became very controversial
    • -Wanted to use human bodies as fertilizer
    • -Was driven out of Germany
    • -This was before the oregin of the species
  64. Buchner
    • Lecturer in medicin
    • Part of the materialist movement
    • Wanted to reduce biological laws to forces of matter
    • Was forced out o his lecturer position due to hus views
    • Used Darwins ideas to attack the idea that the universe was created with a purpose
    • Attacked the church and the priesthood
  65. Ernst Haeckel
    Promoted Darwin in Germany
  66. Ernst Meyer
    • Untill 1859 scientific theories were accepted if they were based on religious theory
    • After 1859 scientific theories were debated by the church as religious theory was not an accepted scientific principlle
  67. Michael Russe
    • Creationism is totally wrong, there
    • are degrees of being wrong, Creationists are on the bottom of the scale,
    • scientific creationism is not just wrong but a misuse of human intelligence.”
  68. Esquirol
    • Born in France
    • Believed that insanity was a disease of the brain and could be cured
  69. Where did Psychiatry emerge?
    In Germany 1830's
  70. Lombroso
    • One of the biggest names in the study of criinal behaviour
    • Believed that it ran in families
    • You could tell by looking at people if they had criminal tendancies
  71. Ottoteqnhi
    • Believed that the shape of the ear might indicate criminality
    • Believed that it was an inherited trait
    • These people should not be aloud to reproduce
  72. Koeheuter
    • -Became professor of natural history in Germany
    • -Made hybrids
    • -Compared their fertility
    • -Thought that he could produce new species
    • -This bothered people as it is an intervention in a divine process
    • -The head gardener sabotaged many of his experiments
    • -Hybrids could be introduced back into the original species
  73. Mendel
    • Was a monk in Eastern Europe
    • Was very active in biological research
    • He was very active in experimenting on peas
    • His results confirmed the theory of dominant and recessive genes
    • Published in 1866
    • No one responded
    • No authority as a biologist
    • His contemporizes failed to see the relevance of his ideas
    • Took some time before his results were discovered
    • By Hugo de Vries and William Batesen
    • Perhaps he had a solituon to a problem that they were studying
  74. Hugo de Vries
    • Found that you could breed for improvement
    • There seemed to be a limit to where you could no longer improve a species
    • What varieties were inheritable?
    • Became basics of modern genetics
    • Was basically ignored until the 20th century
    • The most immediate effect was the important issue of physiology
    • How were behaviors inherited
    • Hereditary was a fundamental force by the end of the 20th century
    • Notions of passing on physiological effects to the next generation had a profound effect
    • Became the basis of racism
  75. Freud
    • Studied in Salpetriere
    • Attempted to prove the mechanism of the brain
    • Believed that sexuality was related to smell
  76. Fliss
    • Reflex neurosis
    • Related to sense of smell
    • Work was contriversial
  77. Charcot
    • Worked at Salpetriere
    • Believed that illness of the nervous system was a natural onset of the struggle to survive
  78. Soviet Genetics
    • Lysenko (Lamarkian)
    • Did not believe in genetics
    • Believed that by altering the growing conditions could alter the prosuct
    • Believed this could work on any plant
    • Was responsible for holding back Soviet Biology
  79. Nikolai Vavilov
    • Geneticist
    • Wanted to improve Soviet Agriculture
    • Was imprisoned
    • Died in prison
  80. Einstine
    • Jewish
    • Questioned the Newtonian Physics
    • Two points are not the same if they are moving in relation to each other
    • There is a relationship between space and time
  81. Michaelson Morley Experiment
    • Was to detect how the Earth moved
    • Disproved Ether
  82. Ernst Mach
    • -Had an influence for a theory of
    • knowledge that scientific ideas however much they are physically true, they are
    • social attitudes.
    • -Knowledge was the result of how we
    • evaluated sensation
    • -Know as phenomenalism
    • -The world was the sum total of the
    • phenomena that we see
    • -Opposed to anything described as
    • metaphysical relationships
    • -There are no absolutes in the universe
    • -Rejected Newtonian Physics
    • -Thought that they were fruitless and arid
    • -Time was something that we constructed out of nothing
    • -These are construct by which we order
    • the universe
  83. Buffon
    • Believed in Degeneration, where the original species degrades into something completely different
    • Defined species as reproductive communities
    • Similar to Linneaus
    • Long time was needed for the degeneration to happen
  84. Lamarck
    • Educated by the Jesuits
    • Worked with Buffon
    • Did not believe in extinction
    • Believed in the existence of a natural order
    • Did not believe in extinction other than through intervention
    • Developed laws of inheritance
    • Any organ that is used will continue to be altered
    • Transformations that occur within an organism are passed along to the next generation
  85. Cuvier
    If all species had existed at creation you would have extinction in the long run
  86. Lenard Phillip
    • Was intent on trying to help german culture survive
    • Was angered by the communist uprising in 1919 he thought had been precipitated by Jews
    • Protested when Einstein was awarded a nobel prize
    • Though all great theories were Germanic in origin
  87. Johannes Stark
    • Wanted to cleanse the german physics of Jewish spirit
    • Though that Einsein's theories were gradually decaying
    • Replaced Stark as the director of the German insitute of Science
    • Stressed the damage that the Jews were doing to German Science
  88. Engineers Resisted Stalin
    • Claimed that the Bolshevics had ruined the Russian Fuel industry
    • Accused of undermining the five year plan
    • Eight were tried in a show trial
    • Over two thousand were implicated
  89. Science became an important agent in Western
    People were mad about science replacing workers with machines
  90. Eugenics
    Sterilized people who were considered unfit to have childeren
  91. Gustaf LeBon
    • wrote The Crowd
    • Tried to define the phenomenon of mass hysteria
  92. Social Darwinism
    Belief that conflict between individuals is key for betterment of society as a whole.
  93. Alfres Plaetz
    • Leading figure in German eugenics movement of the 1920's
    • socialism protected the weak
    • felt each generation should choose the best of their own to reproduce
  94. US army became a huge supporter of what
Card Set
History 284
History of Science