1. Superficial fascia in the abdominal region is composed of two layers, what are they called?
    • a superficial fatty layer called Camper's fascia and a deeper layer without any fat called Scarpa fascia.
    • Scarapa fascia is continuos with the fascia lata of the thigh below the inguinal ligament.
  2. What are the 8 layers of the anterior abdominal wall?
    • 1. Skin
    • 2. Superficial fascia
    • a. Camper's fascia (fatty)
    • b. Scarpa (fibrous)
    • 3. External oblique
    • 4. Internal oblique
    • 5. Transversus abdominis
    • 6. Transversalis fascia
    • 7. Extraperitoneal → Is unremarkable in the front, but posteriorly it contains organs (Kidney, vena cava, testes originate from it)
    • 8. Parietal peritoneum
  3. How is transversalis fascia different from transversus abdominis fascia?
    Every muscle layer has a layer of fascia covering it. Transversus abdominis fascia is simply the fascia coving the transversus abdominis muscle. It is important to note that transversalis fascia is the intrabdominal fascia that takes on the name of the muscle where ever it is. Anteriorly, since it is adjacent to transversus abdominis it is called transversalis fascia. This fascia is always posterior to the rectus abdominis, while the transversus abdominis fascia becomes anteriorly in the inferior portion of the rectus abdominis as it joins the internal abdominis aponorouses (to form the conjoint tendon)
  4. Deep inguinal ring?
    It begins as an out pouching of transversalis fascia just lateral to inferior epigastric vessels.
  5. What are the contents of the spermatic cord?
    • spermatic fascia
    • testicular artery
    • pampiniform venous plexus
    • vas deferens (ductus deferens)
  6. What are the layers of the spermatic cord in order from outside to the inside?
    • 1. External spermatic fascia
    • 2. Cremasteric muscle and fascia (continuation of the internal oblique muscle)
    • 3. Internal spermatic fascia (continuation of the transversalis fascia)
  7. Tunica vaginalis is a remnant of ?
    The processus vaginalis turns into the tunica vaginalis. The processus vaginalis is a remnant of the peritoneum.
  8. What are the boarders of the inguinal triangle?
    • medially it i the rectus abdominis
    • Laterally it is the inferior epigastric artery
    • inferiorly it is the inguinal ligament
  9. Direct vs. indirect inguinal herniation?
    In the indirect: the herniation follows the exact pathway of the spermatic cord descent. The herniation starts lateral to the inferior epigastric artery. Also important to note is that indirect inguinal herniation goes through the deep inguinal ring. Whereas both direct ad indirect pass through the superficial inguinal rings.

    Also since the direct hernia tears though both the transversalis fascia and the internal oblique fascia, it is not covered by them. Therefore, in the spermatic cord it will be between the external spermatic fascia and the cremasteric fascia.
  10. A persistent process vaginalis will lead to?
    congenital indirect inguinal hernia.
  11. Content of the inguinal canal in a male? in a female?
    • Male: Spermatic cord and ilioinguinal nerve
    • Female: Round ligament and ilioinguinal nerve
  12. What is contained within femoral sheath?
    • Going from lateral to medial: femoral artery, femoral vein, and femoral canal.
    • The femoral nerve is lateral to the femoral sheath.
  13. Chief flexor of the hip?
    Psoas majorImage Upload 2
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