PLS Exam 1-2

  1. plurality
    highest # of votes garnered, without getting a majority
  2. office group (Mass) ballot
    candidates listed by name under office
  3. party column (IN) ballot
    candidates divided into columns and arranged by party
  4. straight ticket
    practice of voting for all of one party's candidates for various offices
  5. secret (australian) ballot
    allow voters to pick and choose among diff candidates and and party preference in private
  6. Why no minor parties?
    election laws make it hard for them to compete

    parties in power legislate to keep themselves there
  7. nonpartisan
    candidates don't declare a party affiliation or receive a party nomination

    local offices and elections are often nonpartisan
  8. plural executive system
    state govt system where the governor is not the dominant figure in the executive, but more like first among equals.

    serves along side numerous other officials who were elected rather than appointed by the governor
  9. direct democracy
    citizens make laws themselves, rather than relying on elected representatives
  10. popular initiative
    citizens put a measure on the ballot to become law
  11. popular referendum
    citizens put a measure on the ballot to affirm or reject an action of the legislature or other political actor
  12. legislative referendum
    legislature places a measure on the ballot to win voter approval
  13. recall
    citizens petition and then vote on the ouster of an incumbent prior to the next election
  14. redistricting
    drawing new boundaries for state and congressional legislative districts, usually following a census
  15. interest groups
    individuals, corporations, or associations who seek to influence the actions of elected and appointed officials on behalf of specific company causes
  16. political parties
    organizations that nominate and support candidates for elected offices

    shift with the winds and pursue whatever policy stance will bring them power
  17. factional splits
    groups that struggle to control the message within a party
  18. swing voters
    voters who are not consistently loyal to candidates from one party
  19. candidate centered politics
    candidates promote themselves and there own campaigns rather than relying on party organizations
  20. voter identification
    when a voter strongly identifies with one of the parties
  21. responsible party model
    idea that parties present clear policy choices, try deliver on those policies once in office, and are held accountable by voters by the success or failure of those policies
  22. political machines
    political organizations controlled by a small # of people and run for partisan ends

    control party nominations and and reward supporters with govt jobs and contracts
  23. patronage
    ability of elected officials to hand out to their friends or supporters, rather than hiring based on merit
  24. nonpartisan ballots
    ballots that don't list the candidates by political party
  25. primary election
    elections that determines a party's nominees for offices in the general election
  26. general elation
    decisive election in which all registered voters cast ballots for their preferred candidates for a political office
  27. party convention
    mettings of party delegates called to nominate candidates for office and establish an agenda for the party
  28. closed primary
    nominating elections in which only voters belonging to that party may participate.

    dem have to vote in a closed dem primary
  29. crossover voting
    when members of one party vote in another party's primary
  30. open primaries
    open to all registered voters regardless of party affiliation
  31. blanket primaries
    voters may cast ballots for any candidate for any office regardless of party
  32. runoff primary
    held if no candidate receives a majority in the regular primary.

    two top finishers face off
  33. dealignment
    when no one party can be said to dominate politics in this country
  34. realignment
    when popular support switches from one party to another
  35. independent expenditures
    ad campaigns or other political activities that are run by a party or an outside group without the direct knowledge or approval of a particular candidate for office
  36. political action committees
    groups formed for the purpose of raising $ to elect or defeat political candidates.

    usually represent business, union, or ideological interests
  37. soft money
    money that is not subject to fed. regulation that can be raised and spent by state parties.

    2002 law banned use in fed. elections
  38. Main goal of party
    to win elections and to field people who can do so
  39. ticket splitting
    when voters vote for diff parties' nominees for diff offices
  40. five flavors of interest groups
    1. membership group

    2. trade association

    3. individual institutions

    4. govt lobbyists

    5. private individuals who lobby on their own behalf
  41. contract lobbyist
    represent more than one client
  42. cause lobbyist
    works for an organization that tracks and promotes an issue
  43. direct lobbying
    lobbyist deals with directly with the legislators to gain support
  44. indirect lobbying
    support their cause through media, rallies, and other way of influencing public opinion with the ultimate goal of swaying legislators to support their cause
Card Set
PLS Exam 1-2
definitions etc