Anaerobic Exercise

  1. Adenosine Triphosphate
  2. How much ATP is stored in the muscle cells?
    Limited amounts
  3. Since muscle activity requires a constant supply of ATP,,,
    metabolic pathways must exist in the cell to produce ATP rapidly
  4. How big is a molecule of ATP?
    Large molecule
  5. atp is made of _+_
    adenosine component (sugar) +PO3
  6. From ATP how do you get a muscle contraction or Energy?
    You get both...

    ATP --> ADP +Pi = ENERGY=muscle contraction
  7. What is Pi?
    free phosphate
  8. ATP supply in cell =
    produces a few muscle twitches
  9. 3 Metabolic Pathways for ATP production
    • 1. Creatine Phosphate Breakdown
    • 2. Degradation of glucose or glycogen ->glycolysis
    • 3. oxidative metabolism-Krebs Cycle (use glucose, fat, protein, and CHO)
  10. Anaerobic metabolism consists of NO O2
    What metabolic pathways uses this?
    CP and glycolysis
  11. Aerobic metabolism consists of O2
    What metabolic pathways use this?
    Oxidative metabolism
  12. Control of Bioenergetics
    Biochemical pathways resulting in the production of ATP are regulated by precise control systems.
    • Each pathway contains as number of reactions that are catalyzed by specific Enzymes.
    • In general if ample substrate (eg. ADP) is available , an increase in the # of enzymes present results in an increase rate of chemical reactions.
    • Therefore the regulation of one or more enzymes in a pathway provides a way of controlling the rate of that particular pathway.
  13. How does a rate limiting enzyme control the speed of reactions?
    • Rate limiting enzymes are found early in metabolic pathways
    • The activity of rate limiting enzymes are regulated by modulators (eg. the product)
    • Modulators are substances thate increase or decrease enzyme activity.

    ATP is rate limiting enzyme on lactic acid or ADP.
  14. Control of ATP-CP system

    Creatine Phosphate is also called
  15. CP breakdown is regulated by?
    creatine kinase activity
  16. What are modulators of CP?
    • ADP stimulates
    • ATP inhibits
  17. At the onset of exercise ATP-> ADP +Pi

    This reacton provides us with what ?
    Provides energy for muscle contraction
  18. The increase in ADP simulates creatine kinase to increase the breakdown of CP and resynthesize ATP.
    Creatine kinase is the ___enzyme for CP.
    ADP +CP__creatine kinase_____ ATP +C
  19. Control of Glycolysis
    The most important rate limiting enzyme is?
    PFK- phosphofructokinase
  20. Where does PFK occur in glycolysis?
    near the beginning of glycolysis
  21. When exercise begins ADP and Pi levels _______ PFK activity.
  22. At rest ATP levels are high this___ PFK activity.
    inhibits PFK activity
  23. phosphorylase is
    another important regulatory enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism
  24. Important for glycolysis. Phosphorylase is responsible for the breakdown of glycogen to___.
  25. Phosphorylase is an enzyme but is not considered a___ enzyme.
    glycolytic enzyme.
  26. Phosphorylase plays and important role in glycolysis b/c it provides glucose for entry into___.
  27. CP is for short duration or intermitent work about 10 seconds. What causes fatigue ?
    Decrease in CP
  28. Glycolysis if for single duration or intermitent work 2-5 minutes. What causes fatigue?
    increase in metabolic acidosis, pain.
  29. Mitochondrial respiration (aerobic) of for continuous work. Last less than 5 min. What causes fatigue?
    dehydration, hyperthermia, muscle damage
  30. Fitness training

    Define Training
    the organized sequence of exercise that stimulates adaptations in anatomy and physiology.
  31. What are 2 kinds of adaptations ?
    Training adaptations or chronic adaptations
  32. Training =Winning or increase performance
    This is determined by?
    the quality of training
  33. Principles of training

    Define Specificity
    training should be based on the specific demands or needs of the sport event
  34. the better one can understand these demands or needs..
    the more likely one can develop a suitable training program
  35. What do muscle power tests measure?
    measures the ability of a person to regulate ATP during the tine interval of the test
  36. Predicting maximal muscle power & anaerobic capacity

    Can you measure the muscle capacity for non mitochondrial ATP regulation?
    The muscles capacity for non-mitochondrial (anaerobic) ATP regulation is impossible to measure accurately. So several lab tests have been develpoed that try to measure anerobic capacity.
  37. These are some Short term tests
    • sargents jump and reach
    • margaria power test
  38. these are some intermediate term tests
    • windgate test
    • isokinetic test
    • muscle metabolic accumulation
    • accumulated oxygen deficit
  39. What is the Margaria Power test?
    • Person running up stairs.
    • it is timed
    • and they do get a headstart
    • this tests CP
  40. What is Windgate Test?
    • maximal pedaling for 30 seconds againsts a constant load
    • resistance is set based upon a predetermined equation
    • revolutions are counted
    • Resistance is 7.5% of the body weight (kg)
    • up to 10% on trained athletes
  41. Performance

    Define Mean power
    mean work output over 30 sec interval
  42. Define Peak power
    highest power during any 5 second interval
  43. Define Fatigue index
    Difference between the peak power and the lowest power output divided by the peak power.
Card Set
Anaerobic Exercise
Training for sport and performance