AP HuG Models

  1. Description
    1) Sail-Wagon Epoch (1790-1830)
    2) Iron Horse Epoch (1830-70)
    3) Steel-Rail Epoch (1870-1920)
    4) Auto-Air-Amenity Epoch (1920-70)5) High Technology Epoch (1970-today)

    Uses transportation advances as key to development of Urban areas
    • John Borchert
    • (Urban)
  2. Descripition
    Stage 1 forest-fallow Stage 2 bush-fallow Stage 3 fallow shortens Stage 4 annual cropping Stage 5 multi-cropping – from extensive to intensive

    Population growth forces an increase in technology in farming industry to meet the need.
    Formalized the transition form extensive subsistence forms of agriculture to more intensive cultivation – increased productivity counters loss of fertility
    • Boserup Hypothesis
    • (Rural Land Use)
  3. Descripition
    grows out from CBD 5 zones CBD, transition – industry/poor housing, stable working class, middle class, commuter zone – suburbs
    Based on Bid-rent the idea that land values are highest in the centre of a town or city. This is because competition is high in the central parts of the settlement. This leads to high-rise, high-density buildings being found near the CBD, with low-density, sparse developments on the edge of the town or city Invasion and Succession


    Image Upload 2
    • Concentric Zone
    • {Ernest Burgess, 1920}
    • (Rural Land Use)
  4. Discripition
    Urban Hierarchy, Range, Threshold, Low Order Good, High Order Good
    Hexagon shape – trade areas

    1) threshold -- the minimum
    market needed to bring a firm
    or city selling goods and services
    into existence and to keep it in
    business2) range -- the average maximum
    distance people will travel to
    purchase goods and servicesImage Upload 4

    Spatial distribution of Hamlets, Villages, Towns and Cities.Image Upload 6
    • Central Place Theory
    • {Walter Christaller, 1896-1969}
    • (Rural/Urban Land Use)
  5. Descripition
    Multiple Nuclei model – modern cities develop with many nodes. Cities within cities.
    Image Upload 8
    Many city centers
    • Multiple Nuclei Model
    • {Chauncey Harris/ E L Ullman, 1945}
    • (Urban Land Use)
  6. Descripition
    Types of boundaries - 1. Antecedent,- drawn before populated 2. Superimposed- doesn’t take into account existing ethnic groups, 3. Subsequent,- drawn after populated 4. Relict
    • Richard Hartshorne
    • (Political/Enviroment)
  7. Description
    (better/more efficient production has opened new markets and brought places closer) is similar to Space-Time Convergence (reduction of the importance of distance)


    Capitalism has accelerated the pace of life.
    Compression - EG. Tokyo’s stock market impacts on Toronto.Convergence – EG. Airplane brings people closer together than before
    Image Upload 10
    • Space-Time Compression
    • {David Harvey}
    • (Globalization)
  8. Descripition
    sectors, not rings, certain areas more attractive – as city grows expands outward –
    Transportation Routes Important
    factories/industry zone, radiate out from the CBD. This is probably following the line of a main road or a railway.

    High-income areas along fashionable boulevards or rail lines, water, high ground and far from industry
    Industry radiates along river or rail lines
    Low-income radiates near industry
    Middle-income radiates between low and high income sectors

    Refinement of concentric zone theory
    1939 – Land EconomistImage Upload 12
    • Sector Model
    • {Homer Hoyt, 1939}
    • (Urban)
  9. Describe
    Every country has a ‘Primate City’ (a city that dominates in economics, social factors and politics)Rank Size Rule – 2nd largest city is ½ the size of the Primate city, 3rd largest city is 1/3 the size of the Primate city and so on.

    “The law of the Primate City”
    • Mark Jefferson
    • (Urban)
  10. Describe
    • Recognized the core position of Russia in the Asian landmass and anticipated conflict between Russian (land) and British (sea) power
    • Mahan argued that control of the seas (lanes and access) would lead to global military domination.
    • Sea Power Theory
    • {Alfred Thayer Mahan}
  11. Describe
    Agglomeration/Spatial Influence –
    Manufacturing plants choose locations where they can maximize profit.

    Zone of ProfitabilityImage Upload 14
    • August Losch; 1940
    • (Development)
  12. Describe
    Geo-Political thought – explains why NATO and the WARSAW pact existed – control of Eastern Europe.

    Heartland – Eastern Europe and Russia


    1. Who rules Eastern Europe commands the Heartland2. Who rules the Heartland commands the World Island
    3. Who rules the World Island commands the WorldImage Upload 16
    • The Heartland Theory
    • {Halford Mackinder, 1861-1947}
    • (Political)
  13. Describe
    Population growth relating to Food supply
    1. Food grows Arithmetically (1,2,3,4,5)2. Population grows Exponentially (1,2,4,8,16) 3. Population Checks

    Neo-Malthusians – R. Kaplan, T.F. Homer-Dixon – look at Africa Critics - E. Boserup, S. Kuznets, J. Simon, F. Engels – More people more growth, Science will find a way, distribution of wealth etc.
    • Malthusian Theory
    • {Thomas Malthus, 1766-1834}
    • (Population)
  14. Describe
    Land Use in Southeast Asian cities. Old colonial port cities surrounded by a new commercial district with no formal CBD.

    EG. Manila, Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur.Western commercial Zone and Alien (Asian ) commercial zoneImage Upload 18
    • T.G. McGee, 1967
    • (Urben/Development)
  15. Describe
    nations act like living organisms – must grow and will eventually decline

    Social Darwinism
    • Organic Theory of Nations
    • {Friedrich Ratzel, 1844-1904}
    • (Political)
  16. 11 of them) – Most migrants travel only a short distance.
    • Migrants traveling long distances usually settle in urban areas.
    • Most migration occurs in steps.
    • Most migration is rural to urban.
    • Each migration flow produces a movement in the opposite direction ("counterflow").
    • Most migrants are adults.
    • Most international migrants are young males, while more internal migrants are female.
    • Economic motives dominate migration
    • Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas.
    • Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults.
    • Gender studies of migration indicate that men are more mobile, migrate farther, and have more employment choices and income than women.
    • Law of Migration
    • {E.G. Ravensten}
    • (Migration)
  17. 5 Stages of Economic Development – 1. Traditional Society 2. Pre-conditions to Take-off (primary sector) 3. Take-off (industry) 4. Maturity 5. Mass Consumption etc.

    Capitalistic Model
    Based on UK
Card Set
AP HuG Models
AP HuG Models needed