What is ‘a family of compounds that includes Triglycerides (fats & oils) phospholipids (lecithin) & sterols (cholesterol)’ classified as?
What are fatty acids?
chains of carbon atoms with an acid group at one end & hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon atoms
Explain triglycerides? Give 3 facts about triglycerides.
The major class of dietary lipids. Made up of units known as Fatty Acids & glycerol.
They provide protection, insulation & energy
They may be either solids or liquids
Any excess CHO, fats, proteins and oil will be stored as triglycerides
An organic compound that serves as the backbone for triglycerides
Explain what a fatty acid is & the structure
- It is a chain of carbon atoms with hydrogen attached
it has an acid group at one end and a methyl group at the other
- The tail is a hydrophobic
- The head is a hydrophilic
Name the 3 types of fatty acids
-Saturated, mono-unsaturated & polyunsaturated
-These refer to the number of hydrogen bonds attached to the hydrogen carbon tail
Explain Saturated Fatty Acids & where they are found (4 points)
They contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms.
They have all single bonds between the carbons.
Solid at room temperature
Explain Unsaturated fatty acids (4 points)
-Contain double bonds between carbons causing kinks in the molecule shape
-Liquid at room temperature
-2 types - Monounsaturated & polyunsaturated (2 or more points of unsaturation)
What 2 fatty acids can the body not make?
Linoleic (omega 6) & linolenic acids (omega 3)
How many carbon atoms from the end of the chain, is the double bond in a Linoleic acid?
What 2 types of acids do Linolenic Acid produce?
EPA & DHA
When are Trans Fatty Acids formed?
when liquid oils are made into solid fats (partial hydrogenation)
Explain the process of hydrogenation & the 2 things that result
-Plant oils are exposed to hydrogen at high temperature with a catalyst
-Some double bonds become single bonds
-Other double bonds are converted from CIS to trans configuration
Do trans fats lower LDL cholesterol or HDL cholesterol?