1. What is ‘a family of compounds that includes Triglycerides (fats & oils) phospholipids (lecithin) & sterols (cholesterol)’ classified as?

    A) Lipids
  2. What are fatty acids?
    chains of carbon atoms with an acid group at one end & hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon atoms
  3. Explain triglycerides? Give 3 facts about triglycerides.
    The major class of dietary lipids. Made up of units known as Fatty Acids & glycerol.

    • They provide protection, insulation & energy
    • They may be either solids or liquids
    • Any excess CHO, fats, proteins and oil will be stored as triglycerides
  4. Explain glycerol
    An organic compound that serves as the backbone for triglycerides
  5. Explain what a fatty acid is & the structure
    • - It is a chain of carbon atoms with hydrogen attached
    • it has an acid group at one end and a methyl group at the other
    • - The tail is a hydrophobic
    • - The head is a hydrophilic
  6. Name the 3 types of fatty acids
    • -Saturated, mono-unsaturated & polyunsaturated
    • -These refer to the number of hydrogen bonds attached to the hydrogen carbon tail
  7. Explain Saturated Fatty Acids & where they are found (4 points)
    • Fats
    • They contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms.
    • They have all single bonds between the carbons.
    • Solid at room temperature
  8. Explain Unsaturated fatty acids (4 points)
    • -Oils
    • -Contain double bonds between carbons causing kinks in the molecule shape
    • -Liquid at room temperature
    • -2 types - Monounsaturated & polyunsaturated (2 or more points of unsaturation)
  9. What 2 fatty acids can the body not make?
    Linoleic (omega 6) & linolenic acids (omega 3)
  10. How many carbon atoms from the end of the chain, is the double bond in a Linoleic acid?
  11. What 2 types of acids do Linolenic Acid produce?
    EPA & DHA
  12. When are Trans Fatty Acids formed?
    when liquid oils are made into solid fats (partial hydrogenation)
  13. Explain the process of hydrogenation & the 2 things that result
    -Plant oils are exposed to hydrogen at high temperature with a catalyst

    • -Some double bonds become single bonds
    • -Other double bonds are converted from CIS to trans configuration
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  14. Do trans fats lower LDL cholesterol or HDL cholesterol?
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