Arrangement where the channels of Authority and Responsibility extend in a direct line from the Chief of Executive Officer to those involved at the level of execution.
Divided amongst Specialized Units.
Combines Special Units with a Line Organization approach.
Line & Staff Organization
Tasks that are similar should be combined into one function.
Note: A worker should be assigned a limited number of tasks to increase the quality of work.
Division of Work
Each employee should be directly supervised by only one supervisor.
Unity of Command
The number of persons that one supervisor can effectively supervise.
Note: As one attains a higher rank the Span of Control becomes smaller.
Span of Control
A primary objective of a supervisor is to “get the job done through people.” A person with authority must be held accountable for this authority.
Both authority and responsibility must be delegated in equal amounts.
Responsibility can’t be delegated.
A supervisory duty to develop and train subordinates; it is noted that those who delegate contribute to the development of their subordinate.
A by-product of the Division of Work by function.
Example: (Catch-22) Patrol Officers who receive outstanding evaluations are rewarded by assignment to specialized units.
Patrol Division suffers because it loses talented personnel. Specialization may complicate direction, coordination, and control.
Police Officers should proceed through a Sergeant and a Lieutenant before arriving at the Captain’s office.
Communication should go Upward and Downward through established channels in Hierarchy.
If a supervisor is bypassed by a directive going downward and has no official knowledge of it, he or she is unable to contribute to the accomplishment of such directive and cannot be held responsible for its enforcement.
Chain of Command
Note: Do not confuse Unity of Command with Chain of Command.