what are the major glands?
parotid, submandibular, and sublingual
elaborates a serous (watery, mucous poor) fluid containing electrolytes, but is relatively low in organic substances
has both a serous and mucous secretion
has a greater proportion of mucous output than the other major glands
what are the minor glands?
palatal, lingual, buccal, and labial
salivary glands empty onto the lining mucous membrane of the mouth in many places; on the palate, under
minor glands-mainly mucus secreting glands
within the oral cavity, there is the protective umbrella of the body’s immune system-
cellular and the secretory immune systems
is cell-mediated and consists of the phagocytic and lymphoid elements involved in preventing infection. The secretory system
mainly protects mucous membranes with secretions of antibodies, such as sIgA
Two other defense mechanisms are
taste and tactile sense
the ability to resist routine daily challenges of physical and bacterial agents and to repair limited amounts of tissue damage typical of the wear and tear of daily life
The physical and chemical protective functions of saliva can be divided into five convenient categories:
- 1- lubrication,
- 2- flushing & rinsing,
- 3- chemical
- 4- antimicrobial
- 5-maintenance of superaturation of calcium and phosphate levelbathing enamel
how much is unstimulated or resting saliva is from the submandibular glands
below 0.7mL/minute, the condition qualifies as
Saliva flow may be stimulated by?
- 1- physiologically,
- 2- pharmacologically (OTC drugs, herbals and prescription medications), and
- 3- many different disease states.
The three most encountered xerogenics causing the most severe, long-term xerostomic effects are the
- –tricyclic antidepressants,
- – antihypertensive drugs
The protective functions of saliva are due to its?
physical, chemical, and antibacterial properties
The most easily understood antibacterial function is performed by the secreted??that trap ? which are eventually swallowed.
- sulfated glycoproteins (the mucins)
- (aggregate) bacteria
Four important antimicrobial proteins found in saliva are:
- –salivary peroxidase,
- – secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA).
To reduce the potential of demineralization, it is necessary to:
(1) reduce the number of bacteria producing the acid, (2) reduce the amount of acid produced by the existing bacteria, or (3) negate the effect of the acids produced by plaque
is the repair of enamel rod structure following acidogenic episodes.
Following eruption, the missing ions are supplied from the saliva, a process termed
is not irreversible or inevitably progressive
can be defined as a carbohydrate-modified transmissible local infection with saliva as a critical regulator.
certain strains of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli are highly cariogenic. The former group plays an active
Caries-A Transmissible Local Infection
•In fact, it has been suggested that children are most susceptible for mutans streptococci colonization between 19 and 31 months of age, a so-called “window of infectivity”. This is mainly explained by a combination of frequent and close maternal contacts
First Step—Transmission and Establishment of Mutans Streptococci
At food intake, the accumulated plaque is fed with carbohydrates.
This is a very common side-effect of fixed orthodontic appliances
Once a mutans streptococci- and lactobacilli is established in the oral cavity, there is a risk for future caries development.It is however a general misunderstanding that the disease is an inevitable result of the colonization.
second step-microbial shift
When applied on populations, the caries-risk procedure is termed
inflammation of the marginal gingival without any loss of the epithelial attachment.
–*gingival changes from a pale pink to red
–*contour becomes edematous
–*bleeding on probing or toothbrushing
inflammation of the marginal gingival with a loss of the epithelial attachment, plus irreversible damage to any of the other three remaining components of the periodontium, i.e., the cementum, alveolar bone, and the periodontal ligament.
All periodontitis begins with gingivitis
but not all gingivitis ends in periodontitis
described as a measurement of 4mm or greater using a periodontal probe. (4-6 mm- gray area, depends on epithelial attachment loss)
when the free gingival margin recedes apically along with the epithelial attachment as well as the underlying alveolar bone.
what are some types of species of bacteria that may contribute to the onset of gingivitis and periodontitis.
Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Bacteriodes forsythias.
gingiva has a ?? appearance with ? edges after years of smoking. Bleeding is minimal on brushing.
glazed fibrotic, rolled