1. What are Joints/ Articulations?
    Sites where two or more bones meet
  2. What are the functions of Joints?
    (1) To hold the bones of the skeleton together

    (2) Give our skeleton mobility
  3. What are Joints classified by?
    Structure and function
  4. Joints Classification
    Structural Classification
    • Fibrous
    • Cartilaginous
    • Synovial
  5. Fibrous Joints
    Found connecting bones of the skull (immovable)Image Upload 1
  6. Fibrous Joints
    Longer fibers than sutures,the length determines the amnt of movement slightly moveableImage Upload 2
  7. Fibrous Joints
    Short ligaments that connect teeth to their socketsImage Upload 3
  8. Cartilaginous Joints
    Immovable joints that are a bar/plate of cartilage that join two bones together Epiphyseal plateImage Upload 4
  9. Cartilaginous Joints
    Fibrocartilage sandwiched between articular cartilage and held together by ligament,slightly movable and found in the vertebraeImage Upload 5
  10. Joint Classification/Functional Classification
    Immovable Joints
  11. Joint Classification/Functional Classification
    Slightly Movable Joints
  12. Joint Classification/Functional Classification
    Freely Movable Joints
    *Cartilage-cover ends of Bones
    *Cavity-space b/t the bones
    *Articular Capsule- holds the joint together
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  14. Gliding
    Image Upload 7
    • Flat bone surfaces slide across each others surface both back and forth as well as side to side
    • Eg:Carpals of the wrist and Tarsals of the Foot
  15. Angular Movement Image Upload 8
    Extension-increases the angle between bones

    Flexion-reduces the angle between bones
  16. Angular Movement
    Image Upload 9
    Hyperextension- extension that goes beyond the normal upright position

    Dorsiflexion- Flexion of the foot pointing up towards the body

    Plantar flexion- flexion of the foot pointing down away from the body
  17. Angular Movement
    Image Upload 10
    Abduction - Movement of the limb away from the midline of the body

    Adduction - Movement of the limb towards the midline of the body

    Circumduction - Moving the distal portion of a limb in a circular direction
  18. Rotation
    Image Upload 11
    Rotation-the turning of a bone around its long axis
  19. Special Movement: Supination & PronationImage Upload 12
    • Supination and Pronation refer to the movement of the Radius around the Ulna
    • Supination - turning backward
    • Pronation - turning forward
  20. Special Movement/Inversion & EversionImage Upload 13
    Inversion and Eversion refer to the movement of the foot

    Inversion - the sole of the foot faces medially

    Eversion - the sole of the foot faces laterally
  21. Special Movement/ Protraction & Retraction Image Upload 14
    Protraction and Retraction are non angular movements of the bone anteriorly or posteriorly
  22. Special Movement/Elevation & DepressionImage Upload 15
    Elevation and Depression are movement of a body part superiorly or inferiorly
  23. Opposition
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    Opposition - is action that occurs when the thumb moves to touch the tips of the other digits
  24. Free Movable Joints/ Hinge & Plane
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    Hinge Joints - Knee and Elbow

    Gliding/ Planar Joints - Carpal bones of the wrist and the Tarsal bones of the ankle
  25. Free Movable Joints/Condyloid & SaddleImage Upload 18
    Condyloid Joints-Metacarpals/Metatarsals and the phalanges

    Saddle Joints - Thumb (Metacarpal and Trapezium)
  26. Free Movable Joints/Pivot & Ball Socket Image Upload 19
    Pivot Joints - Atlas and Axis or the Radius and Ulna

    Ball and Socket Joints - Shoulder and Hip
  27. Ligament and Cartilage Injuries

    the ligaments of a joint are stretched or torn
  28. Ligament and Cartilage Injuries

    the tendons of a joint are stretched or torn
  29. Ligament and Cartilage Injuries

    when bones are forced out of alignment
  30. Ligament and Cartilage Injuries

    a partial dislocation of a joint
  31. Ligament and Cartilage Injuries

    •Bursitis and Tendonitis
    Inflammation of a bursa or the tendon sheath respectively
  32. Ligament and Cartilage Injuries

    inflammatory or degenerative disease which damages the joints
  33. Types of Arthritis

    Most common and often seen in the elderly is caused from a wear and tear of the articular cartilage in the joints which lack their ability to be replaced
  34. Types of Arthritis

    •Rheumatoid Arthritis
    • Usually arises b/t the ages of 40 50 caused by an autoimmune disease which attacks the body’s tissue
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  35. Types of Arthritis

    •Gouty Arthritis
    • When excessive Uric Acid is deposited in the joints forming crystals and an inflammatory response initially starts in the big toe
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Card Set
A&P Joints