Chapter 21 biology

  1. A _______ ______ is an aquatic organism hat sifts small food particles from the water. i.e. whales, clams, tube worm
    suspension feeder
  2. A ________ ______is an organism that lives in or on its food source, eating its way through the food. i.e. caterpillars, earthworms
    substrate feeder
  3. A _______ ______ is an organism that lives by sucking nutrient-rich fluids from another living organism. i.e. aphids, mosquitos
    fluid feeder
  4. A ________ _______ is an organism that eats relatively large pieces of food. i.e. herons, humans
    bulk feeder
  5. 4 stages of food processing
    1ststage: Ingestion is the act of eating. (4 ways to do this)

    2ndstage: Digestion breaks down food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb.

    3rdstage: Absorption is the uptake of small nutrient molecules, such as amino acids and simple sugars. The cells lining the digestive tract absorb the products of digestion; the nutrients,which travel in the blood to body cells to provide energy. Foodnot needed immediately are converted to fat for storage.

    4thstage: Elimination is the passing of undigested material out of the digestive compartment.
  6. A __________ _______ is a digestive compartment with a single opening, the mouth. Food is ingested through the mouth and elimination of undigested materials is through the mouth. i.e. hydr
    gastrovascular cavity
  7. Most animals have an _____ _____ which is a digestive tract with two openings, the mouth and the anus, plus a tube/ specialized compartmentconnecting the two
    alimentary canal,
  8. The _______ moves air from the pharynx to the lungs.

    The _________moves food from the pharynx to the stomach.

    The _______ is a flap of cartilage and fibrous connective tissue.

    The _______ is the voicebox with vocal cords
    trachea (windpipe)



  9. Alternating waves of contraction and relaxation by smooth muscle in the walls of the canal move food along in a process called ______
  10. Too much acidity in the stomach inhibits the release of gastrin. This is a ________ _____ mechanism b/c the secretion of gastrin hormone is inhibited by too much product from the secretion of gastrin hormone.
    negative feedback
  11. _______ is the mixture of partially digested food & digestive juices that is formed in the stomach. thick soup
  12. The ______ _______regulates the passage of food (now chyme) from the stomach to the small intestine and limits the upward movement of acids into the esophagus
    pyloric sphincter
  13. _______ ______ secrete pepsinogen which is secreted into the lumen. HCl converts pepsinogen to pepsin. Pepsin activates more pepsinogen.
    Chief cells
  14. HCl converts pepsinogen to pepsin. Pepsin activates more pepsinogen. This is a ________ _______ mechanisms b/c the end product, pepsin, promotes the formation of more pepsin.
    positive feedback
  15. The liver and pancreas are 2 organs that contribute to digestion in the small intestine, mostly in the first 25 cm called the __________
Card Set
Chapter 21 biology
Chapter 21 Biology digestive system