called neuroleptics . Used to treat psychotic symptoms.
- hallucinations and delusions-mostly
- Disorganized orincoherent speech,
- Confused thinking,
- Strange, possibly dangerous behavior, Bizarre behavior,
- Slowed or unusual movements,
- Loss of interest in personal hygiene
- Loss of interest in activities.
Antipsychotic Medication use
- Bipolar – the manic phase
Mode of Action of Antipsychotic medication
- Block the dopamine receptors in the brain thereby reduce the psychotic symptoms.
- Also blocks chemoreceptors, trigger zone and the vomiting center in the brain thereby producing antiemetic effect
Typical and Atypical
2 types Antipsychotic
traditional mainstay of antipsychotic treatment
The atypical (or "novel") neuroleptics, also known as the "newer" drugs. It is more expensive but with less side effect.
Side effect of Antipsychotic medication
- Anticholinergic effect
- Decrease in sexual interest or ability
- Liver problem
- Weight gain
- Change color of urine pink or orange
- Extrapyramidal Syndrome
- Tardive dyskinesia
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
is a neurological disorder most often caused by an adverse reaction to neuroleptic or antipsychotic drugs.
General Nursing Intervention on patient taking Antipsychotic
- Monitor vital signs closely
- Monitor serum glucose level
- Administer medication with food and milk to decrease gastric irritation
- The important of taking medication on time and avoid stopping medication abruptly
Anti-Anxiety Drugs: Minor tranquilizers
Antianxiety drugs are medicines that calm and relax people with excessive anxiety, nervousness, or tension, or for short-term control of phobia disorder
Types of Antianxiety
Antidote to Benzodiazepine
Medication for Insomnia and Anxiety
They act by depressing the reticular activating system (RAS)which is the part of the brain responsible for awake and motivation.
3 main factor all working in concert to cause depression
biological, genetic, and environmental factors
act by blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at the presynaptic neuron thereby making them more available.
- Must not be used with alcohol or antihistamine
- (cough mix) as they will cause severe CNS depression.
- Must not be used along with MAOI as they cause
- hypertensive crisis
- They may cause reduction in the effectiveness of
- antihypertensive medication
Monoamines Oxidase Inhibitors MAOI Side Effect
- Sedation-leading to drowsiness,
- Orthostatic hypotension
- Hypertensive crisis
- Erectile dysfunction
- orgasm difficulty
- Anticholinergic manifestation
- Insomnia- especially -Parnate
- Weight gain
Monoamines Oxidase Inhibitors MAOI
acts on CNS by increasing concentration of epinephrine, serotonin and dopamine
Antidote for the hypertensive crisis
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
It produces antidepressant effect by inhibiting serotonin uptake and destruction thereby making more serotonin available.
For patient on SSRI-prozac instruct
them to take medication early in the day to avoid sleep disturbance at night.
Anti-manic Drug (Mood Stabilizer)
drug used in the treatment of manic phase of bipolar
most effective in the treatment of mania.
Lithium narrow therapeutic range
side effects of Antianxiety drugs
side effects of Antidepressant drugs
- anti-cholinergic effects
- postural hypotension.
specific problems or concerns for drug therapy Lithium
requires renal function assessment and monitoring of blood level
specific problems or concerns for drug therapy Phenothiazines
cause extrapyramidal effects (EPS);
specific problems or concerns for drug therapy Tardive dyskinesia
can be permanent if client is not assessed regularly for signs of tardive dyskinesia!
specific client teaching for drug therapy Phenothiazines
photosensitivity, need to wear protective clothing, sunglasses.
specific client teaching for drug therapy MAO inhibitors
dietary restrictions to prevent hypertensive crisis.