Our bodies gain water by:
_______ _______ which go on inside our cells and which produce water
- chemical reactions
Our bodies lose water by:
- breathing out
The kidneys have two functions:
- to regulate the water content of a mammal,
- to remove the waste product urea.
carries blood into the kidney
carries blood out of the kidney
carries urine from the kidney to the bladder
Blood entering the kidney contains useful substances like _______ as well as the waste substances ____.
The two main processes which go on in the kidney are:
1) __________ of the blood
2) __________ of the useful materials
As the processes of filtration and reabsorption take place, _____ is produced.
Urine contains the waste substance ____
The ______ is the working unit of the kidney. It's where the processes of ________ and _________ occur.
Because the blood vessel leaving the glomerulus is __________ than that entering, pressure builds up in the glomerulus and water containing dissolved glucose and urea are ________ ___ in the ________ _______. This liquid is called _________ _______
- filtered out
- bowmans capsule
- glomerular filtrate
As gloerular filtrate passes down the kidney tubule all of the _______ is reabsorbed into the blood capillaries; some of the ______ is reabsorbed into the blood capillaries; but none of the _____ is reabsorbed.
Urea and some water form ____ which passes into the ________ ____ and then out of the kidney to the bladder via the ______
- collecting duct
Urea is produced when excess proteins are broken down in the ______. The urea is carried from the _____ to the kidneys in the ______
The water content is regulated by the kidneys as a result of a chemical called ___.
ADH is a chemical produced in the brain when the water content of the blood is ___ ___.
ADH is carried to the kidneys by the ______
When ADH reaches the kidneys, it makes them _______ ____ water into the blood capillaries surrounding the kidney tubule. This brings the water content of the blood back to ______ and results in a _____ volume of concentrated urine being produced.
If the water content of the blood gets too high, the brain _____ producing ADH. In the kidneys ____ water is reabsorbed into the blood capillaries. This brings the water content of the blood back _____ and results in a _____ volume of dilute urine being produced.
Kidneys can be ______ by accident of disease. If kidney damage goes ________ the concentration of poisonous urea builds up in the body and can kill the person.
Kidney damage can be treated either by replacing the damaged kidney with a ________ kidney or having the persons blood ______ every few days by a kidney machine.
Benefits of the Kidney Machine:
- It _____ a persons life
- it _____ __ ______ by the body
Limitations of the Kidney Machine:
- The person must spend ____ _______ of time attached to the machine
- The machine is _______
Benefits of the Replacement Kidney:
- The person can live a ______ ____
Limitations of the Replacement Kidney:
- The body may ______ the kidney
- Drugs used to prevent rejection can _____ the persons ______ to _______ ________.
- ability to fight infection.