1. upper respiratory infections affect
    head and neck
  2. lower respiratory infections affect
    • chest
    • can be life threatening
  3. which normal flora doesnt commonly have bacteria
  4. bacterial upper respiratory infections include (4)
    • strep throat
    • diphtheria
    • pink eye
    • otis media
  5. viral upper respiratory infections include (2)
    • common cold
    • adenoviral pharyngitis
  6. severe infections of strep throat can lead to (4)
    • scarlet fever
    • rheumatic fever
    • toxic shock
    • glomerulonephritis
  7. strep throat is tranferred by
    • direct contact
    • inhalation of droplets
  8. vaccine for diphtheria called
    • DTaP and Td
    • diphtheria toxoid
  9. a main sign of diphtheria
    white pustules on uvola
  10. how diphtheria is transferred
    • inhalation
    • human to human
  11. how is pink eye and ear aches treated
    broad-spectrum antibiotics
  12. common cold can lead to
    more serious bacterial diseases
  13. the route of rhinovirus
    • attaches to respiratory epithelium
    • ciliary action ceases
    • causing mucous build-up
  14. adenoviral pharyngitis targets the
  15. symptoms of adenoviral pharyngitis are similar to
    bacterial pharyngitis
  16. where does adenoviral pharyngitis multiply
    inside the host cell
  17. lower respiratory bacterial infections (4)
    • pneumonia
    • pertussis
    • tuberculosis
    • legionnaries' disease
  18. diagnosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is done by
    culturing bacteria
  19. pneumococcal pneumonia is also known as
    community acquired pneumonia
  20. pneumococcal pneumonia is what kind of hemolytic
  21. which pneumonia causes permanent lung damage
  22. klebsiella pneumonia affects mostly
  23. klebsiella pneumonia contains (2)
    • plasmids contain resistant genes
    • capsule- mucoid colonies so its easy to dx
  24. mortality rate of klebsiella pneumonia
  25. which pneumonia has no cell wall
  26. mycoplasmal pneumonia is also known as
    walking pneumonia
  27. diagnois mycoplasmal pneumonia by
    PCR or IgM antibodies
  28. the symptoms for mycoplasmal pneumonia are
    none (asymptomatic)
  29. main sign of klebsiella pneumonia
    bloody sputum
  30. out of all the pnemonias, which one has the longest incubation period?
  31. which pneumonia has the highest carrier rate?
  32. stage 1 of pertussis is called what and what happens
    • catarrhal stage
    • runny nose
  33. stage 2 of pertussis is called what and what happens
    • paroxysmal stage
    • mucous build-up and violent cough
  34. stage 3 of pertussis is called what and what happens
    • convalescence stage
    • can lead to vomiting and convulsions
  35. pass pertussis by
    inhalation droplets
  36. which strain of TB is not transmitted from human to human
    • m. bovis
    • <1% of cases
  37. chronic illness of TB can lead to
    permanent damage to lungs
  38. where does TB colonize
    • in alveoli
    • stays latent in granulomas
  39. can TB be reactivated
  40. treatment for TB
    antibiotic cocktail
  41. Legionnaires' bacteria is normally found
    • environment
    • moisture
  42. Legionnaires' must have a high or low infecting dose
  43. viral infections of lower respiratory (2)
    • influenza
    • hantavirus
  44. influenza is part of what family
  45. epidemics for influenza are due to
    antigenic shifts
  46. hemagglutinin spikes in influenza are used for
    attachment to host cells
  47. neuraminidase spikes are used to
    release virus from cell
  48. antigenic shift
    mutations of single stranded RNA that causes a partial change in genome
  49. influenza spikes damage
    • mucociliary escalator
    • risk of secondary infections
  50. main sign of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
    septic shock
  51. how does one get hantavirus
    • rodent feces
    • no human to human
  52. 5 F's of transmittion
    • food
    • feces
    • fingers
    • flies
    • fomites
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