O2 and CO2 ONLY
Passage way for the air through the lungs
- 1. Nostrils AKA Nares
- 2. Nasal vestibule
- 3. Posterior nasal apertures
- 4. Remaining part of nasal cavity lined w/ mucus
Types of mucus in the nasal cavity
- Olfactor Mucosa
- containing olfactory receptors
- -Produces a quart of mucus a day
- -Contains lysozyme
- -Nasal mucus also includes lysozyme and antibotic
- -Lined w/ sudiostratified columnar epithelium
Scroll like projections in the nasal cavity that increase the surface area 3X
- Has 3 Named regions:
A cartilaginous enclosure
a cargilaginous flap blocking the opening
- Lined w/ psuedostratified cilliated columnar epithelium
- Doesn't transfer gasses
- Cillia beat so that the mucus travels UP the passageway where it is eventually swallowed.
It causes flow in the opposite direction up the passage way.
The Respiratory Tree
- -smooth muscle
- -hyliane cartilage
- -"respiratory epithelium"
- Secondary Bronchi
- -Same but w/ less cartilage
- Tertiary (Segmental) Bronchi
Major portions of the gut
- large intestine
- -ascending colon
- -transverse colon
- -descending colon
- -sigmoid colon
Major Digestive Tract Derivatives
Gut derivate not counted as part of digestive tract
Major Layers of teeth are:
The bucal phase of digestion is...
The Pharyngeal-esophegal phase is...
The esophagus is...
A muscular tube with some glands, and is lined with stratified squamous epithelium
The cardiac sphincter is
At the top of the stomach. AKA the gatroesphageal sphincter. Its major funciton includes preparing food for chemical digestion as well as some chemical digestion itself
A hormone is...
A steroidal or amino acid- based molecule (they may be amino acids, peptides or small proteins) that acts as a chemical messenger to regulate specific cellular and body functions. secreted into the interstitial fluid near the gland cells and then diffuse into the blood
cause secretion to occur or not to occur
cause growth and development
mobilize body defenses
- maintain balances of electrolytes, water,
- and nutrients of the blood
- regulates metabolism
- and energy production
Endocrine glands are also called...
ductless glands because the glands have NO ducts composed of muscular and epithelial tubes that deliver the secretions to some particular place, but instead the secretions diffuse from the extracellular fluid to the blood where the molecules are carried to the entire body.
influence the cell they were made in
influence near by/adjacent cells
Cells that have specific hormone receptors on their cell membranes or in their cytoplasm
When cells are effected by hormones they...(generally do the following)
1. Opens and closes ion channels in cell membranes
2. Stimulates the synthesis of various molecules in the cell including regulatory molecules and enzymes
3. Activates & deactivates enzymes
4. Stimulates mitosis (and therefore influences growth, development and differentiation.)
Factors that influence the effect of hormones
- 2)Half Life
- 3)# of receptors on cell membranes or in cyto
- 4)Other hormones (permissives, synergists,antagonists)
The idea that one hormone cannot "act" unless another is present
The idea that one hormone works in direct oposition to another, counter its effects
The idea that two hormones can work together to accomplish a single goal (IE glucagon and epi)
Negative feed back control of hormones
the more hormone in the blood the LESS secretion
AKA hypophysis. Actually two seperate glands. Posterior lobe and stalk(infundibulum)=neurohypophysis. Stores hormones produced by the hypothalamus. These hormones arrive via tracts NOT blood vessels
Two main hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary are...?
1)Oxycytocin-smooth muscle contractor, controls urination, initiates labor, and ejects milk from breasts
2)Antiduertic Hormone (ADH or Vassopressin)-Stimulates kidneys to reabsorb water REDUCING the volume of urine
AKA Anterior hypophysis (Adenohypophysis). Not connected to Posterior or Brain via tracts, but by hypophyseal portal system, a small series of blood vessel including specially permeable capillaries in the anterior lobe that connects to the hypothalamus so blood from the hypothalamus lobe (and brain) has a more direct route to the anterior lobe than it would ordinarily.
Hormones secreted by the Anterior Hypophysis
- 2)Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH or thyrotropin)
- -Stimulates normal development andsecretory activity of the thyroid gland. Its secretion depends on a releasing hormone from the hypothalamus
- 3)Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
- -cause the adrenal gland (adrenal cortex) to release corticor steroid hormones including glucocorticoids that help the body resist stress and a variety of other functions Including stress response, immune response and regulation of inflammation, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte levels, and behavior.
- 4)Gonadotropins-Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
- -Luteinzing hormone (LH)
- 5)Prolactin (PRL)-Stimulates milk production in humans
Found on the thyroids, usually two on each side, produce parathyroid hormone (parathormone), which stimulates osteoclast activity, releasing calcium to the blood. Also activates Vitamin D, to usable D3
AKA Suprarenal gland. Two main regions, cortex and medulla. Cortex produces mineralocortoids, including Aldosterone, which regulates sodium by increasing its absorption. Adrenal gland also produces glucocortoids like Cortisol, which is an antiinflammatory
produces epi and norepi.
AKA endocrine pancreas, contains islets of langerhans, which secretes hormones, including insulin and glucagon (antagonistic to each other)
Type 1 Aveolar Cells
AKA pulmonocytes, or squamous aveolar cells
Type 2 Aveolar Cells
Greater Aveolar Cells
The two transport mechanisms for CO2 are:
- 1. attached to hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin (HbCO2 )
- 2. as bicarbonate ion in plasma and in the cytoplasm of RBC’s where there is a special enzyme called carbonic anhydrase. This enzyme allows bicarbonate ion to be produced quickly from carbon dioxide and water.