Anatomy Exam 3

  1. Respiratory Gases
    O2 and CO2 ONLY
  2. Passage way for the air through the lungs
    • 1. Nostrils AKA Nares
    • 2. Nasal vestibule
    • 3. Posterior nasal apertures
    • 4. Remaining part of nasal cavity lined w/ mucus
  3. Types of mucus in the nasal cavity
    • Olfactor Mucosa
    • containing olfactory receptors

    respiratory mucosa
  4. Respiratory mucosa
    • -Produces a quart of mucus a day
    • -Contains lysozyme
    • -Nasal mucus also includes lysozyme and antibotic
    • -Lined w/ sudiostratified columnar epithelium
  5. Nasal Conche
    Scroll like projections in the nasal cavity that increase the surface area 3X
  6. Pharnyx
    • Has 3 Named regions:
    • Nasopharynx
    • Oropharynx
    • Larynogopharnyx
  7. Larnyx
    A cartilaginous enclosure
  8. Glottis
    an opening
  9. Epiglottis
    a cargilaginous flap blocking the opening
  10. Trachea
    • Lined w/ psuedostratified cilliated columnar epithelium
    • Doesn't transfer gasses
    • Cillia beat so that the mucus travels UP the passageway where it is eventually swallowed.

    It causes flow in the opposite direction up the passage way.
  11. The Respiratory Tree
    • Trachea
    • -smooth muscle
    • -hyliane cartilage
    • -"respiratory epithelium"
    • Bronchi
    • -Same

    • Secondary Bronchi
    • -Same but w/ less cartilage
    • Tertiary (Segmental) Bronchi
  12. Major portions of the gut
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • small
    • intestine
    • -duodenum
    • -jejunum
    • -ileum

    • large intestine
    • -ascending colon
    • -transverse colon
    • -descending colon
    • -sigmoid colon
    • -rectum
  13. Major Digestive Tract Derivatives
    • Liver
    • Pancreas
  14. Gut derivate not counted as part of digestive tract
  15. Major Layers of teeth are:
    • Enamel
    • Dentin
    • Pulp cavity
  16. Deglutition is...
  17. The bucal phase of digestion is...
  18. The Pharyngeal-esophegal phase is...
  19. The esophagus is...
    A muscular tube with some glands, and is lined with stratified squamous epithelium
  20. The cardiac sphincter is
    At the top of the stomach. AKA the gatroesphageal sphincter. Its major funciton includes preparing food for chemical digestion as well as some chemical digestion itself
  21. A hormone is...
    A steroidal or amino acid- based molecule (they may be amino acids, peptides or small proteins) that acts as a chemical messenger to regulate specific cellular and body functions. secreted into the interstitial fluid near the gland cells and then diffuse into the blood
  22. Hormones can...
    cause secretion to occur or not to occur

    cause growth and development

    mobilize body defenses

    • maintain balances of electrolytes, water,
    • and nutrients of the blood

    • regulates metabolism
    • and energy production
  23. Endocrine glands are also called...
    ductless glands because the glands have NO ducts composed of muscular and epithelial tubes that deliver the secretions to some particular place, but instead the secretions diffuse from the extracellular fluid to the blood where the molecules are carried to the entire body.
  24. Autocrine secretions...
    influence the cell they were made in
  25. paracrine secrtions
    influence near by/adjacent cells
  26. Target cells
    Cells that have specific hormone receptors on their cell membranes or in their cytoplasm
  27. When cells are effected by hormones they...(generally do the following)
    1. Opens and closes ion channels in cell membranes

    2. Stimulates the synthesis of various molecules in the cell including regulatory molecules and enzymes

    3. Activates & deactivates enzymes

    4. Stimulates mitosis (and therefore influences growth, development and differentiation.)
  28. Factors that influence the effect of hormones
    • 1)Concentration
    • 2)Half Life
    • 3)# of receptors on cell membranes or in cyto
    • 4)Other hormones (permissives, synergists,antagonists)
  29. Permisveness
    The idea that one hormone cannot "act" unless another is present
  30. Antagonism
    The idea that one hormone works in direct oposition to another, counter its effects
  31. Syngerism
    The idea that two hormones can work together to accomplish a single goal (IE glucagon and epi)
  32. Negative feed back control of hormones
    the more hormone in the blood the LESS secretion
  33. Pituitary Gland
    AKA hypophysis. Actually two seperate glands. Posterior lobe and stalk(infundibulum)=neurohypophysis. Stores hormones produced by the hypothalamus. These hormones arrive via tracts NOT blood vessels
  34. Two main hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary are...?
    1)Oxycytocin-smooth muscle contractor, controls urination, initiates labor, and ejects milk from breasts

    2)Antiduertic Hormone (ADH or Vassopressin)-Stimulates kidneys to reabsorb water REDUCING the volume of urine
  35. Anterior Pituiatry
    AKA Anterior hypophysis (Adenohypophysis). Not connected to Posterior or Brain via tracts, but by hypophyseal portal system, a small series of blood vessel including specially permeable capillaries in the anterior lobe that connects to the hypothalamus so blood from the hypothalamus lobe (and brain) has a more direct route to the anterior lobe than it would ordinarily.
  36. Hormones secreted by the Anterior Hypophysis
    • 1)HGH
    • 2)Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH or thyrotropin)
    • -Stimulates normal development andsecretory activity of the thyroid gland. Its secretion depends on a releasing hormone from the hypothalamus
    • 3)Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
    • -cause the adrenal gland (adrenal cortex) to release corticor steroid hormones including glucocorticoids that help the body resist stress and a variety of other functions Including stress response, immune response and regulation of inflammation, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood electrolyte levels, and behavior.
    • 4)Gonadotropins
    • -Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
    • -Luteinzing hormone (LH)
    • 5)Prolactin (PRL)-Stimulates milk production in humans
  37. Parathyroids
    Found on the thyroids, usually two on each side, produce parathyroid hormone (parathormone), which stimulates osteoclast activity, releasing calcium to the blood. Also activates Vitamin D, to usable D3
  38. Adrenal Gland
    AKA Suprarenal gland. Two main regions, cortex and medulla. Cortex produces mineralocortoids, including Aldosterone, which regulates sodium by increasing its absorption. Adrenal gland also produces glucocortoids like Cortisol, which is an antiinflammatory
  39. Adrenal Medulla
    produces epi and norepi.
  40. Pancreas
    AKA endocrine pancreas, contains islets of langerhans, which secretes hormones, including insulin and glucagon (antagonistic to each other)
  41. Type 1 Aveolar Cells
    AKA pulmonocytes, or squamous aveolar cells
  42. Type 2 Aveolar Cells
    Greater Aveolar Cells
  43. The two transport mechanisms for CO2 are:
    • 1. attached to hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin (HbCO2 )
    • 2. as bicarbonate ion in plasma and in the cytoplasm of RBC’s where there is a special enzyme called carbonic anhydrase. This enzyme allows bicarbonate ion to be produced quickly from carbon dioxide and water.
Card Set
Anatomy Exam 3
Anatomy Exam 3