APUSH Study cards, Civil War Era

  1. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson
    Lee’s chief lieutenant and premier cavalry officer
  2. Battle of Antietam
    Lee’s attack on Maryland in hopes that he could take it from the Union, bloodiest day of the war, stalemate,McClellan replaced by Burnside, stalemate, South would never be so close to victory again
  3. Emancipation Proclamation
    issued by Lincoln following Antietam (close enough to a victory to empower the proclamation), declared slaves in the Confederacy free (did not include border states), symbolic gesture to support Union’s moral cause in the war
  4. New York City draft riots (1863)
    drafting extremely hated by Northerners, sparked by Irish-Americans against the black population, 500 lives lost, many buildings burned
  5. Military Reconstruction Act (1867)
    South divided into 5 military districts; states to guarantee full suffrage for blacks; ratify 14th amendment
  6. Compromise of 1877
    South to gain removal of last troops from Reconstruction; North wins Hayes as president Business and Labor: The Gilded Age (1865-1900) & Progressivism and Populism (1900-1920)
  7. Andrew Carnegie
    achieved an abnormal rise in class system (steel industry), pioneered vertical integration (controlled MesabieRange to ship ore to Pittsburgh), opposed monopolies, usedpartnership of steel tycoons (Henry Clay Frick as amanager/partner), Bessemer steel process
  8. Standard Oil Trust
    small oil companies sold stock and authority to Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company (consolidation), cornered world petroleum market
  9. John D. Rockefeller
    Standard Oil Company, ruthless business tactics (survival of the fittest)
  10. Vertical and horizontal integration
    beginnings of trusts (destruction of competition); vertical- controlling every aspect ofproduction (control quality, eliminate middlemen - Rockefeller);horizontal- consolidating with competitors to monopolize a market(highly detrimental)
  11. Sherman Anti-Trust Act
    forbade restraint of trade and did not distinguish good from bad trusts, ineffective due to lack of enforcement mechanism (waited for Clayton Anti-Trust Act)
  12. United States vs. EC Knight Company
    decision under Sherman Anti-Trust Act shot down by Supreme Court – sugar refining was manufacturing rather than trade/commerce
  13. National Labor Union
    founded by William Sylvis(1866); supported 8-hour workday, convict labor, federal department oflabor, banking reform, immigration restrictions to increase wages,women; excluded blacks
  14. Knights of Labor
    founded by Uriah Stephens (1869); excluded corrupt and well-off; equal female pay, end to child/convict labor, employer-employee relations, proportional income tax; “bread and butter” unionism (higher wages, shorter hours, better conditions)
  15. Terence V. Powderly
    Knights of Labor leader, opposed strikes, producer-consumer cooperation, temperance, welcomed blacks and women (allowing segregation)
  16. American Federation of Labor
    craft unions that left the Knights (1886), led by Gompers, women left out of recruitment efforts
  17. Samuel Gompers
    focused on skilled workers (harder to replace than unskilled), coordinated crafts unions, supported 8- hour workday and injury liability
  18. “Yellow dog contracts”
    fearing the rise of labor unions, corporations forced new employees to sign and promise not to be part of a union
  19. Pinkertons
    detectives hired by employers as private police force, often used to end strikes
  20. Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
    10-year moratorium on Chinese immigration to reduce competition for jobs (Chinese willing to work for cheap salaries)
  21. Haymarket Bombing
    bomb thrown at protest rally, police shot protestors, caused great animosity in employers for workers’ unions
  22. Eugene V. Debs
    led railroad workers in Pullman Strike, arrested; Supreme Court (decision in re Debs) legalized use of injunction (court order) against unions and strikes
  23. Social Darwinism
    natural selection applied to human competition, advocated by Herbert Spencer, William Graham Sumner
  24. Henry George, Progress and Poverty
    single tax on speculated land to ameliorate industrialization misery
  25. Bellamy, Looking Backwards
    state-run economy to provide conflict-free society
  26. Karl Marx, Das Kapital
    working class exploited for profit, proletariat (workers) to revolt and inherit all society
  27. Louis Sullivan
    led architectural movement to create building designs that reflected buildings’ functions, especially in Chicago
  28. Thomas Edison
    electric light, phonograph, mimeograph, Dictaphone, moving pictures
  29. Interstate Commerce Act
    – created Interstate Commerce Commission to require railroads to publish rates (less discrimination, short/long haul), first legislation to regulate corporations, ineffective ICC
  30. Social Gospel movement
    stressed role of church and religion to improve city life, led by preachers Walter Raushenbusch and Washington Gladen; influenced settlement house movement and Salvation Army
  31. Jane Addams (Hull house)
    helped lead settlement house movement, co- founded NAACP, condemned war and poverty; Jane Addams’s pioneer settlement house (center for women’s activism and social reform) in Chicago
  32. Salvation Army
    established by “General” William Booth, uniformed volunteers provided food, shelter, and employment tofamilies, attracted poor with lively preaching and marching bands inorder to instill middle-class virtues
  33. New immigrants vs. old immigrants
    old immigrants from northern and western Europe came seeking better life; newimmigrants came from southern and eastern Europe searching foropportunity to escape worse living conditions back home and oftendid not stay in the US
  34. Cult of domesticity
    Victorian standards confined women to the home to create an artistic environment as a statement of cultural aspirations
  35. William Marcy Tweed
    leader of Tammany Hall, gained large sums of money through the political machine, prosecuted by Samuel Tilden and sent to jail
  36. Tammany Hall
    Democratic political machine in NYC, “supported” immigrants and poor people of the city, who were needed for Democratic election victories
  37. Dreiser, Sister Carrie, The Financier
    • attacked industrial elite, called for business regulation, publisher refused
    • works breaking with Victorian ideals
  38. Regionalist and naturalist writers
    writing took a more realistic approach on the world, regionalist writers focused on local life (Sarah Orne Jewett), naturalist writers focused on economy and psychology (Stephen Crane)
  39. Bland-Allison Act (1878)
    government compromised to buy and coin $2-4 million/month; government stuck to minimum and inflation did not occur (lower prices); economy grew
  40. James G. Blaine
    Republican candidate for president in 1884, quintessence of spoils system; highly disgusted the mugwumps (many Republicans turned to Democrat Cleveland)
  41. Pendleton Civil Service Act
    effectively ended spoils system and established civil service exams for all government positions, under Pres. Garfield
  42. Farmers’ Alliance movement
    Southern and Midwestern farmers expressing discontent, supported free silver and subtreasury plan (cash advance on future crop – farmers had little cash flow during the year), criticized national banks
  43. Greenback Party
    supported expanded money supply, health/safety regulations, benefits for workers and farmers, granger(farmer)-supported
  44. Populist Party
    emerged from Farmers’ Alliance movement (when subtreasury plan was defeated in Congress), denouncedEastern Establishment that suppressed the working classes;Ignatius Donnelly (utopian author), Mary E Lease, JerrySimpson
  45. Convict-lease system
    blacks who went to prison taken out and used for labor in slave-like conditions, enforced southern racial hierarchy
  46. Civil Rights Cases
    Civil Rights Act of 1875 declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court, as the fourteenth amendmentprotected people from governmental infringement of rights and hadno effect on acts of private citizens
  47. Plessy v. Ferguson
    Supreme Court legalized the “separate but equal” philosophy
  48. Munn v. Illinois
    private property subject to government regulation when property is devoted to public interest; against railroads
  49. Coxey’s Army
    Coxey and unemployed followers marched on Washington for support in unemployment relief by inflationary public works program
  50. Panic of 1893
    8,000 businesses collapsed (including railroads); due to stock market crash, overbuilding of railroads, heavy farmerloans, economic disruption by labor efforts, agricultural depression;decrease of gold reserves led to Cleveland’s repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act
  51. Triangle Shirtwaist fire
    workers unable to escape (locked into factory), all died; further encouraged reform movements for working conditions
  52. Gifford Pinchot
    head of federal Division of Forestry, contributed to Roosevelt’s natural conservation efforts
  53. Frederick W. Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management
    increase working output by standardizing procedures and rewarding those who worked fast; efficiency
  54. Industrial Workers of the World
    supported Socialists, militant unionists and socialists, advocated strikes and sabotaging politics, aimed for an umbrella union similar to Knights of Labor, ideas too radical for socialist cause
  55. “Big Bill” Haywood
    leader of IWW, from Western Federation of Miners
  56. Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class
    satirized wealthy captains of industry, workers and engineers as better leaders of society
  57. Herbert Croly, The Promise of American Life
    activist government to serve all citizens (cf. Alexander Hamilton); founded New Republic magazine
  58. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.
    law meant to evolve as society evolves, opposed conservative majority
  59. “Atlanta Compromise” speech
    given by BTW (Booker T. Washington) to ease whites’ fears of integration, assuring them that separate but equal was acceptable, ideas challenged by DuBois
  60. Muckrakers
    uncovered the “dirt” on corruption and harsh quality of city/working life; heavily criticized by Theodore Roosevelt; Ida Tarabell (oil companies), David Graham Phillips (Senate), AschenSchool (child labor – photography), mass magazinesMc C l u re’s andCollier’s
  61. Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
    revealed unsanitary nature of meat-packing industry, inspired Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
  62. Thomas Nast
    political muckraking cartoonist, refused bribes to stop criticism
  63. Robert La Follette
    created the Wisconsin Idea (as governor of Wisconsin) – regulated railroad, direct-primary system, increased corporate taxes, reference library for lawmakers
  64. Mann Act
    made it illegal to transport women across state borders for “immoral purposes,” violated by black boxer Jack Johnson (w/ white woman)
  65. Women’s Christian Temperance Union
    led by Francis Willard, powerful “interest group” following the civil war, urged women’s suffrage, led to Prohibition
  66. Charlotte Perkins Gilman
    women must gain economic rights in order to impact society (cf. rising divorce rates)
  67. Northern Securities Case
    Northern Securities Company (JP Morgan and James G. Hill - railroads) seen by Roosevelt as “bad” trust, Supreme Court upheld his first trust-bust
  68. Theodore Roosevelt
    first “modern” president, moderate who supported progressivism (at times conservative), bypassedcongressional opposition (cf. Jackson), significant role in worldaffairs
  69. Square Deal
  70. Roosevelt’s plan that aimed to regulate corporations (Anthracite coal strike, Dept. of Commerce and Labor, Elkins and Hepburn Acts), protect consumers (meat sanitation), and conserve natural resources (Newlands Reclamation Act)
  71. Preservationism vs. Conservationism
    Roosevelt and Pinchot sided on conservation rather than preservation (planned and regulated use of forest lands for public and commercial uses)
  72. William H. Taft
    “trustbuster” (busted twice as many as Roosevelt), conservation and irrigation efforts, Postal Savings Bank System, Payne-Aldrich Tariff (reduction of tariff, caused Republican split)
  73. Bull Moose Party
    party formed from Republican split by Roosevelt, more progressive values, leaving “Republican Old Guard” to control Republican party
  74. Woodrow Wilson
    Democratic candidate 1912, stood for antitrust, monetary change, and tariff reduction; far less active than Roosevelt, Clayton Anti-trust Act (to enforce Sherman), Child Labor Act
  75. Federal Reserve Act
    created Federal Reserve System, regional banks set up for twelve separate districts, final authority of eachbank lay with the Federal Reserve Board, paper money to be issued“Federal Reserve Notes”
Card Set
APUSH Study cards, Civil War Era
civil war study terms, the REALLY important ones, likely to forget, or ones we may not have been taught