AP Biology 1st quarter

    • author "me"
    • tags "Bio"
    • description "Daily words"
    • fileName "AP Biology"
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    • Biology
    • The scientific study of life
  1. Evolution
    All the changes that have transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today
  2. Controlled experiment
    An experiment in which an experimental group is compared with a control group that varies only in the factor being tested
  3. Theory
    An explaination that is broad in scope, generated new hypotheses, and is supported by a large body of evidence
  4. Valence shell
    The outer most energy shell of an atom, containing the valence electrons involved in the chemical reations of that atom
  5. Orbital
    The dimensional space where an electorn is found 90% of the time
  6. Electronegativity
    The attraction of a give atom for the electrons of a covalent bond
  7. Van der Waals Interactions
    Weak attractions between molecules that result from localized charge fluctuations
  8. Isomer
    One of several compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and therefore different properties
  9. Functional Group
    A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions
  10. Polymer
    A long moecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together
  11. Monomer
    The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer
  12. Organelle
    Any of several membrane-enclosed structure with specialized functions, suspended in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells
  13. Endomembrane system
    The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell related either through direct physical ccontract or by the transfer of membranous vesicles; includes smooth & rough ER, golgi apparatus lysosomes, and vacuoles
  14. Amphipathic
    Having both a hydrophilic and hydrophobic region
  15. Aquaporins
    A channel protein in the plasma membrane of the plant, animal, or microorganism cell that specifically facilitates osmosis, the diffusion of H2O across the membrane
  16. Diffusion
    The spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from a more concentrated area
  17. Passive transport
    The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane
  18. Facilitated diffusion
    The spontaneous passage of molecules and ions, bound to specific carrier proteins, across a biological membrane down their concentration gradients
  19. Active transport
    The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient with help of energy in put and specific transport proteins
  20. Tonicity
    The ability of a solution to cause a cell within it to gain or lose water
  21. Isotonic
    Having the same solute concentration as another solution
  22. Hypertonic
    The comparing two solutions, refering to the one with a lower solute concentration
  23. Hypotonic
    In comparing two solutions, referring to one with a lower solute concentration
  24. Signal transduction pathway
    A mechanism linking a mechanical or chemical stimulus to a specific cellular response
  25. Ligand
    A molecule that bind specifically to a receptor site of mother molecule
  26. Protein kinase
    An enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein
  27. G Protein
    A GTP binding protein that relays signals from a plasma membrane signal reception, known as a G-protein-linked receptor, to other Signal transduction proteins inside the cell. When such a receptor is activated, it binds a molecule of GTP in place of GDP. Hydrolysis of the (something) GTP to GDP inactiviates the protein
  28. Protein phosphate
    An enzyme that removes phosphate groups from proteins, often functioning to remorse the effect of a protein kinase
  29. Second messenger
    A small nonprotein, water soluble molecule or ion, such as calcium ion or cyclic AMP, that relays a signal to a cell's interior in response to a signal received by a signal receptor protein
  30. Scaffolding proteins
    A type of large relay protein to which several other relay proteins are simultaneously attached to increase the efficiency of signal transduction
  31. Apoptosis
    The changes that occur within the cell as it undergoes programmed cell death, which is brought about by signals that trigger the activation of a cascade of suicide proteins in the cell destined to die
  32. Kinetochore
    A specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to mitotic spindle
  33. Cleavage
    The process of cytokinesis in animal cells, characterized by pinching of the plasma membrane. Also the succession of rapid cell divisons without growth during early embryonic development that converts the zygote into a ball of cells
  34. Malignant tumor
    A cancerous tumor that is invasive enough to impair the functions of one or more organs
  35. Metastasis
    The spread of cancer cells to locations distant from their original site
  36. Catabolic pathway
    A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds
  37. Anabolic pathway
    A metabolic pathway That synthesizes a complex molecule from simpler compounds
  38. Exergonic reaction
    A spontaneous chemical reaction, in which there is a net release of free energy
  39. Endergonic reaction
    A nonspontaneous chemical reaction, in which free energy is from the surroundings
  40. Catalyst
    A chemical agent That changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
  41. Activation energy
    The portiond of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system. The change of a system is calculated by the equation ^G=^H-T^S, where T is temperature
  42. Competetive inhibitor
    A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substance whose structure it mimics
  43. Noncompetitive inhibitor
    A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing its conformation so that it no longer binds to the substrate
  44. Aerobic respiration
    A catabolic pathway that consumes oxygen and organic molecules, producing ATP
  45. Fermentation
    A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid
  46. Oxidation
    The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction
  47. Reduction
    The addition of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaction
  48. Oxidative phosphorylation
    The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain
  49. Chemiosmosis
    An energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP. Most ATP sysnthesis in cells occurs by this process.
  50. Carbon fixation
    The incorperation of carbon from CO2 into an organic compound by an autotropic organism (a plant, another photosynthetic organism, or a chemoautotrophic prokaryote).
  51. Photorespiration
    A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen, releases carbon dioxide, generates no ATP, and decreases photosynthetic output; generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days when stomata close and oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide
Card Set
AP Biology 1st quarter
DAily words