Public Relations

  1. Why was inverted pyramid invented?
    Journalists at the civil war would send stories via telegraph and often the message got cut off
  2. working w/ media to inform the public about an organization's mission, policies and practices in a positive , consistent and credible manner
    media relation
  3. a filter through which specialists can transform information that is often negative or vague to create a more positive impression.
  4. __________ percent of newspaper income comes from advertising
    80 percent
  5. print media need __________ ____ to fill space get story ideas
    pr material
  6. Query letter are used to often stimulate the interest of editors for a story in ______?
  7. _____ is used most often in TV
    story board
  8. extra video shot when a camera crew is covering a story
    B roll
  9. Rules of thumb for writing:
    Word length:
    5 Characters or less
  10. Rules of thumb for writing:
    sentense length
    17 words or less
  11. Rules of thumb for writing:
    2-3 sentenses
  12. Rules of thumb for writing:
    passive voice
    less than 5%
  13. Rules of thumb for writing:
    reading level
    9th grade or less
  14. san serif- fonts are often used in _________
  15. serif are often used in
    body copy
  16. For general audiences use a _______ point type
  17. (Three words) signal passive voice
    is, was, ??
  18. a subject has something done to it rather than performing the action itself
    passive voice
  19. easier to read on a computer screen ______
    san serif
  20. easier to read on print
  21. kerning (character spacing)
    leading (line spacing)
  22. cutlines(captions) use ______ font
    san serif
  23. readability- easily read a lot of words
    legibility - easily read very few words
  24. A system where a color image is separated into 4 different color values by the use of filters and screens.
    4 color process
  25. Using one or more colors for a publication/ graphic/ headline. Very selective use of color often on only a limited number of pages.
    spot color
  26. Texas State colors
    PMS 504 & gold 130
  27. art of selecting and setting type
  28. subheads
    - a few words or short
    - sentences above or below the headline
    - includes information not in the headline
    - font size is smaller than the headline but bigger than the body copy.
    - Entices reader to body copy
  29. Headlines often focus on:
    - Benefit: the benefit promosed
    - News/ information - announces news
    - Provocative - provoke curiosity
    - question - raises a question
    - Command - order readers to do something
  30. 30-3-30 rule
    30 second readers scan

    3 minute readers do a "light" read

    30 minute readers read every word
  31. Generally uses more copy as part of a rational, linear approach
    central route to persuasion
  32. Often uses images and headlines to get attention and entertain. Less body copy. Less rational, linear in approach
    Peripheral route to persuassion
  33. Not everything needs a headline, subhead, copy
    Visuals can speak for themselves
  34. choice and structure of visual elements. Conceptual decisions
  35. specific size and placement of elements to execute a design -- visuals, headlines, subheads, body copy, logo, etc
  36. Principles of design (5)
    • Balance
    • Unity
    • Proportion
    • contrast
    • Flow
  37. Balance:
    formal (symmetric) or informal (asymmetrical)
  38. Unity:
    Do the elements seem to belong together?
    Do they work harmoniously together?
  39. Proportion: relationship of sizes of elements on a page
  40. Contrast: relationship of elements in terms of
    - size
    - shape
    - color
  41. Stages of layout approval:

    Thumbnail--rough first drafts

    Rough layout - second draft

    Comprehensive - polished approximation of final draft

    Mechanical - final pasteup, camera ready
  42. First draft of layout

    Work out the general placement of elements on page

    very crude
    Thumbnail sketch
  43. Public relations people often write the quotes that are used in news releases.-- person who "said" the quotes has to approve what you write
  44. Writing News releases:
    4 questions:
    what's your key message?

    Who's your target audience?

    What does the target audience gain?

    How does this fit into your overall media strategy?
  45. Parts of a news release:

    - release date: immediate or embargo
    - contact information
    - title/ headline (craft w/ keywords for search engines)
    - lead paragraph
    - body paragraphs w/ quote
    - boilerplate
  46. Contact information:
  47. find a local angle
    that will get the local newspapers interested.
  48. Mass distribution- Macro distribution
  49. Microdistribution - highly targeted
  50. Men & women:
    - gestures should be smaller
    - white shirts reflect too much light, choose a subtle color such as blue or beige
    - avoid black, white or red
    - avoid pinstripes- Moire Pattern
  51. MEN
    wear knee-length socks

    keep double breasted jackets buttoned

    single-breasted jackets can be opened, but not too wide

    wear makeup. tv lights can penetrate several layers of skin.

    Whiskers show without makeup

    Don't forget makeup on receding hairlines or bald heads.

    HDTV adds to the need for makeup on TV.

    The smallest blemish shows
  52. WOMEN

    careful w/ vivid red lipstick or lip gloss. stick to softer tones and dab lips w/ a little powder

    make sure your hair will stay where you want it. you don't want to be playing with hair

    be mindful you when choosing an outfit that you can place a microphone on there
  53. News conference

    you need to communicate w/ the media all at once.

    only do it when you have something that is a major event

    be prepared to answer tough questions

    PR ppl could be the one up there to answer the questions// or could be prepping the speaker

    Teach the client to talk in sound bites.

    critique the client's body language to make sure it is open and friendly

    tell the media when, where, and subject; then make phone calls to ensure that they received your notice and who they are sending

    allows you to give out information to all media at the same time

    gives the media access to the key newsmaker for direct questioning
  54. Organizing a news conference

    ○ select a convenient location and time, (10-3) often late morning

    ○ arrive early to check on room set-up

    ○ invite the press well in advance if possible

    ○ have a press kit prepared

    prep the speaker for kinds of questions that may be asked
  55. press parties

    ○ a meal or reception for journalists, media leaders, and other guests

    ○ the goal is to make some sort of announcement or statement after socializing, hoping to
    increase media receptivity (about an hour or socializing, 10 mins of business,
    back to socializing)

    ○ press kits and often gifts are distributed
  56. Press tour- 2 types

    1. journalists are invited on a junket to see or experience something. Hosts pay for transporting,
    feeding, and housing reporters. the goal is to familiarize reporters 1st hand w/ something that may be difficult to understand otherwise

    2. individuals tour the country to promote a book, movie, TV show, etc
  57. Meetings

    • w/ the general public (town meeting), stockholders,
    employees, etc.

    • should be tightly run to start and stop promptly,
    move along steadily, etc.
  58. Radio

    • very short lead time

    • transportable

    • specialized audiences

    • stations air newscasts, PSAs, calendars, talk shows,
    editorials, DJ comments, and live community events

    • Audio news release (ANR)

    • public service announcement (PSA)

    • radio media tours one -on-one interviews w/ radio announcers
  59. online media

    • short lead times

    • can provide substancital detail

    • w/ hypertext links the info can be customized for ind.

    • multm: txt, audio, and video

    • opporunities for interactivity and feedback
  60. New media

    • blogs

    • websites

    • social networking sites -viral

    what limitations to these?

    • you don't have reach and frequency.
  61. • reach:
    # of ppl you reach
  62. • frequency:
    # of times it is seen
  63. Image Upload 1
  64. Image Upload 2
  65. What is the difference between TV and newspaper news stories?
    Image Upload 3
  66. Image Upload 4
  67. Image Upload 5
  68. Image Upload 6
  69. Image Upload 7
  70. Image Upload 8
  71. Four layout and design approaches:
    • vertical design
    • horizontal design
    • modular design
    • open design
  72. ______ appear dominated by one- or two column elements in a multicolumn format. Guides the eye from the top of the page to the bottom of the page
    Vertical design
  73. _______ appear dominated by multi-column elements that extend beyound half of the page's width, often the full width of a page. Reader's eye tends to move from left to right in following the news down a page
    Horizontal design
  74. combines horizontal and vertical elements in a format that squares elements off with other elements on a page, such as photograph, a boxed item or maybe an advertisement. allows the eye to move down the page in a logical way. typically a backwards 6. can also take the reader from the top to the bottom of a page in the shape of a z
  75. may have only one large, impressive photograph, a large headline and text
    open design
Card Set
Public Relations
Test 3