1. Each planet of the solar system is believed to have formed from an accumulation of dust and gas drawn together by .
2. The planet having the largest diameter relative to earth is .
3. The process by which simple plantlike organisms introduced free oxygen into the earth’s atmosphere is called .
4. The dinosaurs appeared about _____ million years ago.
5. The means of discovering basic scientific principles is called the .
6. Food, unlike minerals or land, is considered to be a _______resource.
7. On a global scale, the human population increases when its birthrate exceeds its ________ rate.
8. ______________Population growth is when the number of individuals added per unit of time increases over time.
9.________ time is the length of time required for a population to double in size.
1. An __________is the smallest particle into which an
element can be subdivided while still retaining the chemical characteristics of that element.
2. The atomic number is the number of in an atomic nucleus.
3. The atomic _________ number is the sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in an atomic nucleus.
4. An ______ is an atom that has lost or gained electrons.
5. ________bonding occurs when the atoms of a compound share electrons.
6. A ___________is a chemical combination of two or more elements, in specific proportions, having a distinctive set of physical properties.
7. The atoms of materials are arranged in regular,
8. _________is the ability of a mineral to resist
9. The silica _________, consisting of four oxygen anions surrounding a single silicon cation, is the basic
building block of silicate minerals.
10. ________are silicates in which atoms are tightly bonded into two-dimensional sheets.
11. __________is the simplest silicate containing only
silicon and oxygen.
12. ________are unusual among silicates in that their structures can absorb or lose water.
13. _________is a naturally occurring silicate melt,
which may also contain suspended mineral crystals and dissolved water and gases.
14. ________sedimentary rocks are those formed from
fragments of preexisting rocks.
15. ________ metamorphism occurs adjacent to a
cooling magma body, while _________ metamorphism occurs on a large scale involving heat and pressure generated by mountain-building or plate-tectonic movement.
1. _______is the study of large-scale movement and deformation of the earth's crust.
2. The solid and rigid outermost layer of the earth is called the _________.
3. ___________ stress tends to squeeze an object; _________stress tends to pull an object apart.
4. __________ is the deformation produced in a body of matter in response to stress applied to it.
5. If a material is subjected to ________ deformation, the material will return to its original size and shape when the stress is removed.
6. A material may rupture before there is any
plastic _______ deformation.
7. _________ temperature is the temperature above
which a magnetic material loses its magnetism.
8. The ocean floor is made up largely of
the volcanic rock known as ________.
9. At a _________ plate boundary, lithospheric plates move apart; at a _________ plate boundary, lithospheric plates move toward each other.
10. Laurasia and ___________ are names given to the northern and southern portions of Pangaea, respectively.
11. Most of North America is part of the North American Plate; however, the part of California to the west side of the San Andreas fault is part of the _______ Plate.
12. Excess sea floor is consumed in _____________ zones.
13. ___________ cells in the asthenosphere may be a
driving force behind plate tectonics.
14. The concept that rocks are constantly subject
to change and that any type of rock can be transformed into another type of rock is called the ____________.
1. The phenomenon in which rocks snap back
elastically to their prestress condition after an earthquake is called ____________________.
2. The point on the earth’s surface directly above the focus of an earthquake is called the ___________ .
3. When an earthquake occurs, it releases
energy in the form of _____________ , which are divided into body waves and surface waves.
4._______________ are body waves that involve a side-to-side motion of molecules of the materials through which they travel.
5. The instrument that is used to detect the ground motions generated by earthquakes is called a __________.
6. __________ is a measure of the damaging effects of an earthquake on surface features and on humans.
7. Earthquakes that follow the main shock
are called __________.
8. An earthquake of Richter magnitude 6
causes ________________ times as much ground movement as one of Richter magnitude 4.
9. ____________ are events that precede an earthquake and can be used to predict its occurrence.
10. A method of releasing built-up strain along locked sections of faults by pumping fluid into fault zones is called ______________.
1.____________ is the volcanic, fine-grained
compositional equivalent of granite.
2. The collection of volcanoes rimming the
Pacific Ocean is known as the ____________.
ring of fire
3. A ___________ has formed in the crater of Mount St.
4. Bits of violently erupted volcanic material are collectively called _________.
5. Stratovolcanoes are also called _________ volcanoes.
6. A mudflow of meltwater and volcanic ash produced by a volcanic eruption is called a ___________.
7. The town of St. Pierre, on the Caribbean island of Martinique, was destroyed by a ___________ that occurred during the eruption of Mont Pelée in 1902.
pyroclastic flow (or nuees ardentes)
8. During the A.D. 79 eruption of Mount Vesuvius, many people were killed by the release of ____________.
toxic or volcanic gases
9. A _______ volcano considered to be is very unlikely to erupt again.
10. A ____________ is an enlarged volcanic summit crater formed by either an explosion or the collapse of a volcano.
1. __________ is the most important agent sculpting the earth’s surface.
2. The __________ includes all the water at and near the earth’s surface.
3. The ________ includes all the processes by which
water in the hydrosphere circulates.
4. A ___________ is any body of flowing water confined within a channel.
5. Stream ___________ is the amount of water flowing past a given point in a specified length of time.
6. A hundred-year flood is a flood with ______________________ of one hundred years.
7. Stream _________ is a measure of the total load of
material a stream can carry.
8. A __________ is a fan-shaped deposit of sediment
formed at a stream’s mouth.
9. An __________ is a fan-shaped deposit of sediment
formed where a stream flows from a mountain into a dry plain or desert, or flows into a more slowly flowing, larger stream.
10. A ___________ is the area surrounding a stream channel into which the stream spills over during floods.
11. The __________ of a stream is the elevation of the
stream’s water surface at any point along the stream's course.
12. A ___________ is constructed by plotting stream stage or discharge as a function of time.
13. A ____________ is constructed by plotting stream stage or discharge as a function of recurrence
interval or annual probability of occurrence.
14. ___________ are raised banks along a stream channel that help to contain high discharge to prevent flooding.
15. The __________ River is the highest-discharge stream in the United States
1. A ____________ continental margin can be described as a margin if it is far removed from an
active plate boundary
2. A ________ is a gently sloping shoreline area
washed over by waves and covered by sediment.
3. The depth at which water motion within a wave is negligible is the _________.
4. _________ or abrasion, is the erosion caused by the grinding action of sand-laden waves on a coast.
5._____________ are steplike terraces cut into bedrock along a coast by wave action as a consequence of rising land or falling water level.
6. A __________ is a coastline stream valley that is
partially flooded by the sea as a consequence of rising sea level or coastline subsidence.
7. A _________ refers to the net movement of water
parallel to a coastline.
8. ___________ refers to the movement of sand along the length of a beach in the same general direction as the longshore current.
9. ___________ is the deflection of waves as they
approach the shore.
10. __________ are long, narrow islands paralleling a
11. An ____________ is a body of water along a coastline that contains a mix of fresh and salt water.
12. A storm ________ is a local increase in the water level of an ocean or large lake that occurs in response to low air pressure associated with a major storm, such as a hurricane.
1.____________ is a general term for rapid mass
2. _____________is the maximum slope angle at which a given dry, unconsolidated material is stable.
angle of repose
3. __________is the expansion of wet soil as it
freezes and the ice expands.
4. __________is a fine-grained sediment of pulverized
rock produced by glacial erosion.
5. __________ is an extremely slow mass-wasting event.
6. A __________ is a free-falling action in which the
moving material is not always in contact with the ground underneath.
7. __________ is the accumulated debris that results
from rockfalls or rockslides.
8. A __________ is a mass-wasting event in which a
relatively cohesive unit of rock or soil moves downslope along a well-defined surface or plane.
9. A soil _________ is a slide that typically exhibits a
rotational movement of the soil mass as it moves downslope.
10. A ________ is a mass-wasting event in which
materials move in a chaotic, incoherent fashion.
11. The most rapid mass movements are normally rockfalls, avalanches, and ________.
12. Landslides are often triggered by heavy
rain or _____________.
1. A _______ is a mass of ice formed from compacted,
recrystallized snow that moves over land under its own weight.
2.__________ is glacial erosion that occurs as ice
freezes onto rock and tears away rock fragments as the ice moves on.
3. ________ is sediment deposited by melting glacial
4. A _______ is a landform made of till.
5. Wind _________ is a type of natural sandblasting in
which wind-transported sediments strike an object and wear it away.
6. __________ is the wholesale removal of loose
sediment by wind erosion.
7. A _______ is a low mound or ridge of fine-grained
material (usually sand) deposited by the wind.
8. ________is a deposit of windblown silt.
9. A ___________ is an area of low rainfall on the
leeward side of a mountain range that is caused by loss of moisture from air passing over the mountains.
10. ____________ is the conversion of habitable arid
lands to uninhabitable desert as a result of land-use practices such as farming and grazing of livestock.
1. ___________ is a mixture of disintegrated rocks and organic matter that will support the growth of plants.
2. __________is the physical breakup of rock without
changes occurring in the rock's chemical composition
3. ___________is the disintegration of rock due to
reactions with chemicals in the environment.
4. ___________is the process of removal of soluble
minerals from the soil by dissolution.
5. The ____________ of a typical soil profile consists
mainly of broken-up rock.
6. The __________ of a typical soil profile is also called the zone of accumulation or the zone of deposition.
7. Soil ________ relates to the sizes of fragments in the soil, whereas soil ________relates to the soil’s tendency to form lumps of soil particles.
8. _________ soil contains an abundance of aluminum
and iron hydroxides and oxides, is typically acidic, and is characteristically developed in humid climates.
9. _________ soil develops in acid climates and is
characterized by the presence of calcium carbonate.
10. ________ soil is severely leached, nutrient-poor
soil of tropical climates
1. An _______ is a rock in which a valuable or useful
metal occurs at a concentration high enough to make it economically practical to mine.
2. Diamonds are mined from a type of igneous rock called __________ that occurs as pipelike intrusive
3. _________ ore deposits are formed by warm fluids
circulating in the earth's crust.
4. __________ is a name given to hydrothermal vents
that emit dark clouds of suspended sulfide minerals.
5. A ____________ is a sedimentary rock, consisting of alternating iron-rich and silica rich (or carbonate-rich) layers, that may qualify as an ore of iron.
banded iron formation
6. __________ are ore deposits mechanically concentrated by the sorting action of moving water.
7. _________ is the most commonly mined source of aluminum.
8. _________ is investigation by methods such as
aerial photography and satellite imagery.
9. _________ are piles of waste rock produced by
10. __________ are piles of crushed or ground waste rock produced as a by-product of mineral processing.
1. ____________ are hydrocarbon energy sources formed from the remains of once-living organisms.
2. _________,or petroleum, is not a single chemical compound, but a liquid mixture of various hydrocarbons.
3. _________ is the most common gaseous hydrocarbon in natural gas.
4. __________ energy resources are those not being
replenished or formed on a human time scale.
5. The term __________ describes processes that occur in the absence of oxygen.
6. _________ is a soft, brown coal formed directly
7. __________ is the process by which coal is
converted into a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel.
8. ___________ is the process by which coal is
converted into a liquid hydrocarbon fuel.
9. ___________ is a sedimentary rock containing the
waxy hydrocarbon fuel called kerogen.
10. _________ are sedimentary rocks containing a
viscous, tar-like petroleum.
1. ________ is the splitting apart of atomic nuclei
into smaller nuclei.
2. __________ is the joining of atomic nuclei to form
larger ones and the releasing of energy in the process.
3. A _________ is a series of fission reactions
occurring in a mass of fissionable material such as uranium-235.
4. A _________ is a reactor that produces more
fissionable nuclear fuel than it consumes.
5. A _________ is a nuclear reactor accident caused by the loss of core coolant and the resultant overheating of the core.
6. _________ , or solar cells, produce electricity directly from sunlight.
7. _________ energy is derived from the internal heat
of the earth.
8. _________ is a potential geothermal energy source
where thermal gradients are at least 40oC/kilometer and where groundwater is lacking.
hot dry rock
9. __________ fuels are those derived from living or
10. ___________ is a fuel consisting of a blend of 90% gasoline and 10% alcohol.
1. A _________ is a disposal site for solid or contained liquid waste in which the wastes are covered by a layer of earth at least once a day.
2. ________ is water containing dissolved chemicals
that has escaped from a waste-disposal site.
3. _________ are sediments dredged from waterways and reservoirs, usually to improve navigation or enlarge capacity.
4. _________ is the sorting of waste material by type
5. A _________ is a sanitary landfill designed for
toxic waste disposal.
6. An _________ field is a network of porous pipes
and surrounding soil designed to process the effluent from a septic system.
7. __________ treatment of municipal sewage consists
of removing solids and floating grease and scum;
_________ treatment of the remaining liquid is
8. The _________ of a radioisotope is the period of time required for one-half of an original sample of the material to decay.
9. _________ radioactive wastes are sufficiently low
in radioactivity that they do not require special disposal precautions, whereas ________ radioactive wastes are sufficiently radioactive to require extraordinary disposal precautions.
10. A procedure that isolates solid, high-level radioactive wastes by surrounding the waste with
several different types of materials to create multiple obstructions to waste leakage or invasion by ground water is called the __________ __________ concept.
10. The average worldwide population growth
rate is about _______ percent per year.