What does ATP do?
atp powers nearly all forms of work
What does the adenosine part of ATP consist of?
adenine a nitrogenous base
what is the triphosphate part contain?
three negatively charged phosphate groups
Bonds connecting the phosphate groups are unstable and be broken how?
is the hydrolysis of ATP exergonic or endo? why?
Exergonic, releases energy when a phosphate group leaves
What is phosphorylation?
the transfer of a phosphate group
What are the three types of cellular work?
Chemical, mechanical, and transport
What drives all 3 types of cellular work?
What is an example of mechanical work?
the transfer of phosphate groups to special motor proteins in muscle cells causes the proteins to change shape and pull on actin filaments, in turn causing them to contract
How can ATP be used in terms of concentration gradients?
the energy from ATP drives the active transport of solutes across a membrane against their concentration gradient by phsphorylating certain membrane proteins
Why can work be sustained?
because ATP is renewable resource that cells regenerate
ATP shuttles chemical energy and drives cellular work