- –Naturally occurring
- –Chemical elements
- –Make up very small % of body
- –Most abundant mineral in the body
- –≈99% stored in bone and teeth
- Integral part of bone structure
- Bone serves as a calcium reserve, releasing or removing calcium from the blood
- and phosphorous are essential to bone formation
Calcium phosphate salts crystallize on collagen forming hydroxyapatite crystals that add rigidity to bone
- During and after the bone strengthening processes, fluoride may displace the “hydroxy” part of the crystals, making fluorapatite
- –A mineral that resists bone-dismantling forces to = help maintain bone integrity
- Most abundant
- Can find most of this mineral in your body
- Calcium in Body Fluids
- –≈1% of calcium is in the fluids that bathe and fill cells
- –Regulates the transport of ions across cell membranes; of particular import in nerve transmission
- –Helps maintain normal blood pressure
- –Essential role in blood clotting
- –Essential for muscle contraction and therefore heartbeat
- –Allows secretion of hormones, digestive enzymes, and neurotransmitters
- –Activates cellular enzymes that regulate many processes
- –≈85% is combined with calcium in the crystals of the bone and teeth
- –Phosphorous salts are buffers
- –Part of DNA and RNA
- –Phosphorus compounds carry, store, and release energy in the metabolism of energy nutrients
- –Form part of phospholipids
- –Present in some proteins
- Barely qualifies as major
- Only ≈1 ounce is present in the body of a 135-pound person
- Over half in the bones
- The rest in muscles, heart, liver, other soft tissues
- Only 1% in body fluids
- –Critical to many cell functions
- Assists in the functioning of more than 300 enzymes
- –Release and use of energy from energy-yielding nutrients
- –Directly affects the metabolism of
- Vitamin D
The principal positively charged ion inside the body’s cells
- –Maintenance of fluid balance
- –Maintenance of electrolyte balance
- –Maintenance of cell integrity
- –Maintenance of heartbeat
- Major negative ion in the body
- -Accompanies sodium in fluids outside cells
- -Acids-base balance
- -Component of hydrochloric acid
- Required for synthesis of many sulfur-containing compounds
- Certain antioxidants
- Sulfur-containing amino acids
- –Help strands of protein assume their functional shape
- –Skin, hair, and nails
- Contain rigid proteins, which have a high sulfur content
- –Fluid balance
- –Electrolyte balance
- –Maintenance of extracellular fluid balance
- –Acid-base balance
- –Muscle contraction
- –Nerve transmission
- –As blood sodium rises, thirst ensures that a person will drink water until sodium-to-water ratio is restored
- –The kidneys then excrete the extra water along with the extra sodium
The Trace Minerals
Works with protein in every body organ, liberates Vitamin A from the liver, involved in immunity
Needed in hemoglobin and myoglobin, the protein transporters/carriers of oxygen in the blood and muscle
needed for thyroxine, made by the thyroid, helps regulate metbolism, deficiency leads to goiter
The Trace Minerals
- Forms decay-resistant fluorapatite in teeth
- Works with insulin to regulate glucose
- Helps form hemoglobin and collagen
- Works with Vitamin E to prevent oxidation
- –Can survive with other deficiencies for months or years
- –Can only survive a few days without water
- –In less than a day, a lack of water alters the body’s chemistry and metabolism
- Water is found in
- –Blood vessels
- –Chemical structure of cells, tissues, organs
Water participates in many chemical reactions
- Delivers nutrients / removes waste
- Water is great solvent
- –Dissolves amino acids, glucose, minerals, etc. for transport
- –Fats travel with water-soluble proteins
- Water’s incompressibility
- –Enables it to act as a lubricant and cushion at joints
- –Cushions sensitive tissues such as the spinal cord and fetus
- –Lubricates the digestive tract, respiratory tract, and all tissues that are moistened with mucus
- –Fluid that fills the eye keeps optimal pressure on the retina and lens
- Water balance
- –Water intake needs to equal water loss
- –Otherwise dehydration or water intoxication can occur
- Water cleanses the body
- –Nitrogen wastes must be removed
- –Kidneys filter wastes from the blood and excrete them with water as urine
sources of water can be found in food, liquids, made from metabolism.
Ways our bodies lose water is by the skin, kidneys, feces, lungs
A condition of severely stunted physical and mental growth, deficiency in iodine
- pH scale
- 0-6 acidic
- 7 neutral
- 8-14 basic
When dissolved particles are separated by a membrane of water flow to the side of greater dissolved particle concentration
Deficiency in iron, those with this may eat dirt, rocks, nonfoods
Contains chloride, aids in protein digestion
Sources of Minerals
- Almonds, figs, beans, carrots, pecans, raisins, brown rice, apricots, garlic, dates, spinach, sesame seeds, brazil nuts, cashews, papaya, avocados, celery.
- Brewers yeast, clams, cheese, corn oil, whole grains.
- Soy beans, Brazil nuts, bone meal, raisins, legumes, seafoods, black strap molasses.
- Kelp, dulse, beets, celery, lettuce, Irish moss, grapes, mushrooms, oranges.
Sources of Minerals
- Iron *
- Kelp, raisins, figs, beets, soy beans, bananas, asparagus, carrots, cucumbers, sunflower seeds, parsley, grapes, watercress.
- Honey, almonds, tuna, kelp, pineapple, pecans, green vegetables.
- Celery, bananas, beets, egg yolks, bran, walnuts, pineapples, asparagus, whole grains, leafy green vegetables.
- Mushrooms, cashews, oats, beans, squash, pecans, carrots, almonds.
- Spinach, apples, tomatoes, strawberries, bananas, lemons, figs, celery, mushrooms, oranges, papaya, pecans, raisins, pineapple, rice, cucumbers, Brussels sprouts.
- Turnips, raw milk, cheese, wheat germ, cucumbers, beets, string beans, seafoods, lima beans, okra, pumpkins.
- Bran, cheese, eggs, cauliflower, nuts, onions, broccoli, fish, wheat germ, cucumbers, turnips, corn.
- Mushrooms, liver, seafood, soy beans, sunflower seeds, brewers yeast.
Balances fluid, H2O filter
The partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body.
The increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells
Dehydration and Water Intoxication
- Dehydration- an abnormal loss of water from the body,
- especially fromillness or physical exertion
Water Intoxication- result when a dehydrated person drinks too much water without the accompanying electrolytes.