1. Jealousy
    • involves self, loved one and rival
    • threat to or loss of important relationship
  2. Jealousy could be
    • a basic emotion
    • or a compound emotion
  3. Jealousy as a compound emotion
    • it is a combination of basic emotions (fear, sadness, and anger)
    • or that it is a label for a situation
  4. Social-cognitive perspective
    • 2 forms of jealous:
    • primitive form
    • elaborated form
  5. primitive form
    • urge to stop the interaction between the loved one and the rival
    • this may occur in infants and other animals
    • to maintain and reestablish relationships
  6. elaborated form
    • with age meaning of interaction becomes important
    • threat to self-concept or self-esteem (if loved one starts spending time with someone else, why? am i boring?)
    • to relationship rewards (we get love, attention, rewards, the things you enjoy in the relationship)
  7. Hart (1998) experiment
    • Subject: 6 month olds (no siblings)
    • IV: Mom plays with dolls vs. nonsocial toy
    • DV: facial expressions and behavior (do they try to get mother attention, temper tantrums?)
    • Can jealousy be seen at such an early age?
  8. Results to Hart (1998) experiment
    • Babies had greater negative affect when the mother paid attention to the doll than the toy
    • jealousy can be seen as early as 6 months
  9. A study of jealousy over time
    Masciuch and Kienapple
  10. Masciuch and Kienapple exp.
    • subjects: 4.5 months - 7 yr old
    • IV: mom interacts with infants vs. same age peer
    • DV: behaviors
  11. Results of Masciuch and Kienapple exp.
    • around 6-8.5 months start seeing some jealousy reactions
    • 1.5 years old no doubt there is jealousy
    • correct the other child, pretend call father to tell on their mother
    • children 3.5+: jealous to peer > to baby
    • younger children = no effect of rivals age
  12. What is key aspect of Masciuch and Kienapple exp.?
    • By 3.5 year old they were no longer jealous of the infant, they were jealous of the peer
    • younger children do not care if it is an infant or a peer, just equally as jealous
  13. Jealousy over infidelity
    • adult jealousy
    • it is a motive for murder
    • 12-16% or as high as 25% of murder across cultures
    • frequent cause for divorce
  14. Evolutionary Psychology perceptive
    • Jealousy as a specific innate module theory (JSIM)
    • Buss et. al Study
  15. Evolutionary Psychologists believe
    • that the way the brain is hardwired is for it perform certain functions/mechanisms
    • men prefer .7 hip to waist ratio
    • there are lots of routes the mind could have taken
    • Evolutionary Psychology does NOT equal natural selection
    • what triggers jealousy in men id different for women
  16. Jealousy as a specific innate module theory (JSIM)
    • Men get jealous over sexual infidelity
    • Women get jealous over emotion infidelity
    • why? because they face different adaptive challenges
  17. Jealousy as a specific innate module theory (JSIM) for men
    • men expend their resources on their offspring and will expend their resources if the offspring is their own
    • mens problem is cuckoldry causing them to develop sexual jealousy module
  18. Jealousy as a specific innate module theory (JSIM) for women
    • the problem is not wanting your mate giving his resources to some other female
    • the solution is that females are emotionally prone (emotional jealousy module)
    • men that are in love will their resources to the female they love
  19. what is the evidence of the jealousy difference between men and women?
    Buss et al study
  20. Buss et al study
    Forced-choice (FC) hypothetical scenario - what would upset you more?
  21. Buss et al study results
    • 25% of women choose sexual infidelity
    • 50% of men choose sexual infidelity
    • therefore women think emotionally attached is worst
    • Just because there are sexual difference doesnt mean it is innate
  22. Contrast Between Theories (JSIM and Social Cognition)
    • Type of threat and role of cognitive appraisals:
    • JSIM: cognition confined to detection of infidelity
    • Social-Cognition: cognition/appraisal important (am i boring? did we agree not do this?), many possible threats
    • emotional process specific to infidelity?:
    • JSM: yes, mechanisms specific to mating
    • Social Cognition: no, same jealous process across interpersonal contexts (the same jealousy you would feel with friends and family)
  23. Adult Study of Real Infidelity
    • Harris (2002)
    • Subjects: 196 adults
    • Measure: (1)FC infidelity questions and (2)reactions to mate's actually infidelity (degree focus on sexual vs emotional aspects)
  24. Results Harris (2002)
    • actual infidelity: people focused more on the emotional betrayal that the sexual betrayal
    • men and women are similar than different
    • dont get a difference in men and women killing each other over jealousy
    • Buss does not hold up
  25. Why might the 2 sexes have similar jealous reactions?
    • Ancestral environment may have been different: more sharing in the past... men did not provide specifically to the gathering
    • Different proximate mechanisms: more jealousy mechanism may solve both cuckoldry and resources loss, spot the flirty clues to stop infidelity
Card Set
Psyc 153 Jealousy