The lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture
A person�s fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling
Freud�s term for the human being�s basic drives
Freud�s term for a person�s conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives with the demands of society
Freud�s term for the cultural values and norms internalized by an individual
Piaget�s term for the level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses
Piaget�s term for the level of human development at which individuals first use language and other symbols
Concrete operational stage
Piaget�s term for the level of human development at which individuals first see casual connections in their surroundings
Formal operational stage
Piaget�s term for the level of human development at which individuals think abstractly and critically
George Herbert Mead�s term for the part of an individual�s personality composed of self-awareness and self-image
Cooley�s term for a self-image based on how we think others see us
People, such as parents, who have a special importance for socialization
George Herbert Mead�s term for widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in evaluating ourselves
A social group whose members have interests, social position, and age in common
Learning that helps a person achieve a desired position
The means for delivering impersonal communications to a vast audience
A category of people with something in common, usually their age
A setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by an administrative staff
Radically changing an inmate�s personality by carefully controlling the environment
The personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male
The unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women
A form of social organization in which females dominate males
A form of social organization in which males dominate females
The belief that one se in innately superior to the other
Kingsley Davis�s study of Anna, the girl isolated for five years, shows that
Without social experience, a child never develops
Most sociologists take the position that
It is human nature to nurture
Lawrence Kohlberg explored socialization by studying
Carol Gillian added to Kohlberg�s findings by showing that
Girls and boys typically use different standards in deciding what is right and wrong
The �self,� said George Herbert Mead, is
The part of the human personality made up to self-awareness and self-image
Why is the family so important to the socialization process?
Family members provide vital caregiving to infants and children
Families give children social identity in terms of class, ethnicity, and religion
Parents greatly affect a child�s self-concept
Social class position affects socialization: Lower-class parents tend to stress _____, and well-to-do parents stress _____.
In global perspective, which statement about childhood is correct?
Rich societies extend childhood much longer than poor societies do
Modern, high-income societies typically define people in old age as
Less socially important than younger adults
According to Erving Goffman, the purpose of a total institution is
To change a person�s personality or behavior
Gender roles (sex roles)
Attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex
Any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates
Analysis of the interplay of race, class, and gender, often resulting in multiple dimensions of disadvantage
Comments, gestures, or physical contacts of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated and unwelcome.
Support of social equality for women and men, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism
Gender is not just a matter of difference but also a matter of
The anthropologist Margaret Mead studied gender in three societies in New Guinea and found that
What is feminine in one society may be masculine in another
For all of us raised in U.S. society, gender shapes our
There is a �beauty myth� in U.S. society that encourages
Women to believe that their personal importance depends on their looks
In the United States, what share of women work for income?
In the U.S. labor force,
Women are still concentrated in several types of jobs
For which of the following categories of people in the United States is it true that women do more housework than men
People who work for income
People who are married
People who have children
In the United States, women in the labor force working full time earn how much for every dollar earned by men working full time?
After the 2006 elections, women held about what percentage of seats in Congress?
Which type of feminism accepts U.S. society as it is but wants to give women the same rights and opportunities as men?
A socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important
A shared cultural heritage
A rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people
A simplified description applied to every person in some category
The belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another
A person or category of people, typically with little power, whom people unfairly blame for their own trouble
Unequal treatment of various categories of people
Institutional prejudice and discrimination
Bias built into the operation of society�s institutions
A state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing
The process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture
Biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories
The physical and social separation of categories of people
The systematic killing of one category of people by another
Race refers to _____ considered important by a society, and ethnicity refers to _____.
Biological traits; cultural traits
What share of the U.S. population consists of people of Hispanic ancestry?
A minority is defined as a category of people who
Are defined as both different and disadvantaged
In this country, four states now have a �minority majority.� Which of the following is not one of them? (California, Florida, Hawaii, New Mexico)
Research using the Bogardus social distance scale shows that U.S. college students
Are less prejudice that students fifty years ago
Prejudice is a matter of _____, and discrimination is a matter of _____.
The United States is not truly pluralistic because
Different racial and ethnic categories and unequal in social standing
Which term is illustrated by immigrants from Ecuador learning to speak the English language?
During the late 1400s, the first Europeans came to the Americas; Native Americans
Had inhabited this land for 30,000 years
Which of the following is the largest category of Asian Americans?
The recognized violation of cultural norms
The violation of a society�s formally enacted criminal law
Attempts by society to regulate people�s thoughts and behavior
Criminal justice system
A formal response by police, courts, and prisons officials to alleged violations of the law
The idea that deviance and conformity result not so much from
A powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person�s self-concept and social identity
Medicalization of deviance
The transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition
Crime committed by people of high social position in the course of their occupations
The illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf
A business supplying illegal goods or services
A criminal act against a person or a person�s property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias
Crimes against the person
Crimes that direct violence or the threat of violence against others
Also known as violent crimes
Crimes against property
Crimes that involve theft of property belonging to others
Also known as property crimes
Violations of law in which there are no obvious victims
Crime is a special type of deviance that
Refers to violations of law
Emil Durkheim explains that deviance is
Found in every society
Applying Robert Merton�s strain theory, a person selling illegal drugs for a living would be an example of which of the following categories?
Labeling theory states that deviance
Arises not from what people do as much as how others respond.
When Jake�s friends began calling him a �dope-head,� he left the group and spent more time smoke marijuana. He also began hanging out with others who used drugs, and by the end of the term, he had dropped out of college. Edwin Lemert would call this situation an example of
The development of secondary deviance
A social-conflict approach claims that who a society calls deviant depends on
Who has and does not have power
Stealing a laptop computer from the study lounge in a college dorm is an example of white criminal offense?
The FBI�s criminal statistics used in this chapter to create a profile of the street criminal reflect
Offenses known to the police
Most people arrested for a violent crime in the United States are
Which of the following is the oldest justification for punishing an offender?