SOC 100 Midterm #2.txt

  1. Socialization
    The lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture
  2. Personality
    A person�s fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling
  3. Id
    Freud�s term for the human being�s basic drives
  4. Ego
    Freud�s term for a person�s conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives with the demands of society
  5. Superego
    Freud�s term for the cultural values and norms internalized by an individual
  6. Sensorimotor stage
    Piaget�s term for the level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses
  7. Preoperational stage
    Piaget�s term for the level of human development at which individuals first use language and other symbols
  8. Concrete operational stage
    Piaget�s term for the level of human development at which individuals first see casual connections in their surroundings
  9. Formal operational stage
    Piaget�s term for the level of human development at which individuals think abstractly and critically
  10. Self
    George Herbert Mead�s term for the part of an individual�s personality composed of self-awareness and self-image
  11. Looking-glass self
    Cooley�s term for a self-image based on how we think others see us
  12. Significant others
    People, such as parents, who have a special importance for socialization
  13. Generalized other
    George Herbert Mead�s term for widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in evaluating ourselves
  14. Peer group
    A social group whose members have interests, social position, and age in common
  15. Anticipatory socialization
    Learning that helps a person achieve a desired position
  16. Mass media
    The means for delivering impersonal communications to a vast audience
  17. Cohort
    A category of people with something in common, usually their age
  18. Total institution
    A setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by an administrative staff
  19. Resocialization
    Radically changing an inmate�s personality by carefully controlling the environment
  20. Gender
    The personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male
  21. Gender stratification
    The unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women
  22. Matriarchy
    A form of social organization in which females dominate males
  23. Patriarchy
    A form of social organization in which males dominate females
  24. Sexism
    The belief that one se in innately superior to the other
  25. Kingsley Davis�s study of Anna, the girl isolated for five years, shows that
    Without social experience, a child never develops
  26. Most sociologists take the position that
    It is human nature to nurture
  27. Lawrence Kohlberg explored socialization by studying
    Moral reasoning
  28. Carol Gillian added to Kohlberg�s findings by showing that
    Girls and boys typically use different standards in deciding what is right and wrong
  29. The �self,� said George Herbert Mead, is
    The part of the human personality made up to self-awareness and self-image
  30. Why is the family so important to the socialization process?
    • Family members provide vital caregiving to infants and children
    • Families give children social identity in terms of class, ethnicity, and religion
    • Parents greatly affect a child�s self-concept
  31. Social class position affects socialization: Lower-class parents tend to stress _____, and well-to-do parents stress _____.
    Obedience; creativity
  32. In global perspective, which statement about childhood is correct?
    Rich societies extend childhood much longer than poor societies do
  33. Modern, high-income societies typically define people in old age as
    Less socially important than younger adults
  34. According to Erving Goffman, the purpose of a total institution is
    To change a person�s personality or behavior
  35. Gender roles (sex roles)
    Attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex
  36. Minority
    Any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates
  37. Intersection theory
    Analysis of the interplay of race, class, and gender, often resulting in multiple dimensions of disadvantage
  38. Sexual harassment
    Comments, gestures, or physical contacts of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated and unwelcome.
  39. Feminism
    Support of social equality for women and men, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism
  40. Gender is not just a matter of difference but also a matter of
    • Power
    • Wealth
    • Prestige
  41. The anthropologist Margaret Mead studied gender in three societies in New Guinea and found that
    What is feminine in one society may be masculine in another
  42. For all of us raised in U.S. society, gender shapes our
    • Feelings
    • Thoughts
    • Actions
  43. There is a �beauty myth� in U.S. society that encourages
    Women to believe that their personal importance depends on their looks
  44. In the United States, what share of women work for income?
  45. In the U.S. labor force,
    Women are still concentrated in several types of jobs
  46. For which of the following categories of people in the United States is it true that women do more housework than men
    • People who work for income
    • People who are married
    • People who have children
  47. In the United States, women in the labor force working full time earn how much for every dollar earned by men working full time?
    77 cents
  48. After the 2006 elections, women held about what percentage of seats in Congress?
  49. Which type of feminism accepts U.S. society as it is but wants to give women the same rights and opportunities as men?
    Liberal feminism
  50. Race
    A socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important
  51. Ethnicity
    A shared cultural heritage
  52. Prejudice
    A rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people
  53. Stereotype
    A simplified description applied to every person in some category
  54. Racism
    The belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another
  55. Scapegoat
    A person or category of people, typically with little power, whom people unfairly blame for their own trouble
  56. Discrimination
    Unequal treatment of various categories of people
  57. Institutional prejudice and discrimination
    Bias built into the operation of society�s institutions
  58. Pluralism
    A state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing
  59. Assimilation
    The process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture
  60. Miscegenation
    Biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories
  61. Segregation
    The physical and social separation of categories of people
  62. Genocide
    The systematic killing of one category of people by another
  63. Race refers to _____ considered important by a society, and ethnicity refers to _____.
    Biological traits; cultural traits
  64. What share of the U.S. population consists of people of Hispanic ancestry?
  65. A minority is defined as a category of people who
    Are defined as both different and disadvantaged
  66. In this country, four states now have a �minority majority.� Which of the following is not one of them? (California, Florida, Hawaii, New Mexico)
  67. Research using the Bogardus social distance scale shows that U.S. college students
    Are less prejudice that students fifty years ago
  68. Prejudice is a matter of _____, and discrimination is a matter of _____.
    Attitudes; behavior
  69. The United States is not truly pluralistic because
    Different racial and ethnic categories and unequal in social standing
  70. Which term is illustrated by immigrants from Ecuador learning to speak the English language?
  71. During the late 1400s, the first Europeans came to the Americas; Native Americans
    Had inhabited this land for 30,000 years
  72. Which of the following is the largest category of Asian Americans?
    Chinese American
  73. Deviance
    The recognized violation of cultural norms
  74. Crime
    The violation of a society�s formally enacted criminal law
  75. Social control
    Attempts by society to regulate people�s thoughts and behavior
  76. Criminal justice system
    A formal response by police, courts, and prisons officials to alleged violations of the law
  77. Labeling theory
    The idea that deviance and conformity result not so much from
  78. Stigma
    A powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person�s self-concept and social identity
  79. Medicalization of deviance
    The transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition
  80. White-collar crime
    Crime committed by people of high social position in the course of their occupations
  81. Corporate crime
    The illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf
  82. Organized crime
    A business supplying illegal goods or services
  83. Hate crime
    A criminal act against a person or a person�s property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias
  84. Crimes against the person
    • Crimes that direct violence or the threat of violence against others
    • Also known as violent crimes
  85. Crimes against property
    • Crimes that involve theft of property belonging to others
    • Also known as property crimes
  86. Victimless crimes
    Violations of law in which there are no obvious victims
  87. Crime is a special type of deviance that
    Refers to violations of law
  88. Emil Durkheim explains that deviance is
    Found in every society
  89. Applying Robert Merton�s strain theory, a person selling illegal drugs for a living would be an example of which of the following categories?
  90. Labeling theory states that deviance
    Arises not from what people do as much as how others respond.
  91. When Jake�s friends began calling him a �dope-head,� he left the group and spent more time smoke marijuana. He also began hanging out with others who used drugs, and by the end of the term, he had dropped out of college. Edwin Lemert would call this situation an example of
    The development of secondary deviance
  92. A social-conflict approach claims that who a society calls deviant depends on
    Who has and does not have power
  93. Stealing a laptop computer from the study lounge in a college dorm is an example of white criminal offense?
  94. The FBI�s criminal statistics used in this chapter to create a profile of the street criminal reflect
    Offenses known to the police
  95. Most people arrested for a violent crime in the United States are
  96. Which of the following is the oldest justification for punishing an offender?
Card Set
SOC 100 Midterm #2.txt
Sociology Midterm