Chp. 10 Thinking and Language

  1. What is congnition??
    the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
  2. What are concepts?
    a mental grouping of similiar objects, events, idea, or people
  3. prototype
    mental emage or best example of a category

    provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category
  4. algorithm
    method logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem

    (ex. trying to bake the perfect cake from scratch)
  5. heuristic
    simple thinking strategy that oftem allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently

    (speedier but more error prone.)
  6. insight
    sudden flash of inspiration
  7. What are the two cognitive tendencies?
    confirmation bias and fixation
  8. confirmation bias
    confirming a hypothesis with facts
  9. fixation
    inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective
  10. types of fixation
    mental set and functional fixedness
  11. mental state
    approaching a problem in a particular way, that has been successful in the past
  12. fuctional fixedness
    tendency to perceive the functions of objects as fixed and unchanged
  13. reprresentaiveness heuristics
    judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent.

    (may lead one to ignore other relevant information)
  14. availability heuristic
    estimating events based on their availability in memory
  15. framing
    the way an issue is posed
  16. belief bias
    the tendency for one's preexisiting beliefs to distort logical reasoning
  17. belief perserverance
    clinging to one's initial conceptions after proven wrong
  18. artificial intelligence
    programming a computer to think like a human
  19. phoneme
    smallest distictive sound unit

    • (consonants are more imormative than vowels)
    • (changes in phonmems produce changes in meaning)
  20. morpheme
    smallest unit that careied meaning

  21. grammar
    a system of rules (semantics and syntax) that enables us to communicate with each other.
  22. semantics
    • set of rules to derive meaning from morphomes; study of meaning
    • (ex. adding -ed to make past tense)
  23. syntax
    rules we use to order words into sentences
  24. babbling stage
    3 to 4 months
  25. one-word stage
    age 1 to 2
  26. two word stage
    age 2: telegraphoc speech: evidence of grammar
  27. rapid language acqusition after 2 years
    complex sentences and double meaning
  28. Skinner theory
    language develops with association, imitaion, reinforcement
  29. objective to skinner
    deaf children learn to speak
  30. chomsky's theory
    inborn universal grammar
  31. objectives to chomsky
  32. cognitive neroscientist
    learn 1st few years when the brain is sill fresh
  33. lingustic determinism
    whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think

    (may not determine but does influence what we think)
  34. thinking without language
    • procedural memory
    • think in images (ex. stop sign)
    • think w/o awareness (ex. instinct)
    • language influences thinking and thinking influences language
  35. do animals think??
    animals do think
  36. do animals communicate?
    communicate but not with language: communicate fo survival
Card Set
Chp. 10 Thinking and Language
pschology words