Human devlopment Exam 2 - 2

  1. What are the 6 theoretical conceptualizations?
    • Behavioristic
    • Psychometric
    • Piagetian
    • Infromation Processing
    • Cognitive Neuroscience
    • Social Contextual
  2. Behavioristic Approaches
    • Classical Conditioning
    • Operant Conditioning
    • How behavior changes as result of experience
  3. Psychometric Approaches
    • The psychometric appproach reports on how well they solve problems, particularly compared to other children
    • Related to testing; measure intelligence
    • Don't answer how well
    • test & quanity
  4. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development
    • 1 month to 3 1/2 years
    • 45-60 minutes to admister
    • Mental scale
    • Motor scale
    • Infant behavior profile
    • asses of infant devlopment
    • 3 components
    • respond to series of stimuli
  5. What are Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development?
    • Sensorimotor (Birth to 2 years)
    • Preoperational (2-7 years)
    • Concrete operations (7-11 years)
    • Formal Operations (11 years to adulthood)
  6. Piaget: How do Children Devlop cognitively?
    • Schemes - action or representation that categorize things
    • Assimilation and Accommodation - change schemes to fit new things
    • Organization - group isolated thougth or behavior into a category
    • Explain how children construct understanding of the world
  7. Information processing
    How do infants larn to solve problems?
    • Encoding, storage, and use of information
    • Most accepted view
  8. Information Processing Map
    Image Upload 2
  9. Information Processing Approaches
    A few approaches used in information processing...
    • Habituation
    • Violation of expectations
  10. Habituation
    • Infants prefer to pay attention to novel sensory experiences
    • When they are "used to" (habituated) a stimulus, they will resume normal activities
    • When introduced to a novel stimulus, they will stop their normal activity to pay attention (dishabituation)
  11. Violation of expectations
    • Allows the researcher to assess what infants "expect"
    • Familiarization phase
    • Event that violates expectations
    • Looking longer indicates surprise and understanding that something usual has happened
  12. Cognitive Neuroscience
    How do infants learn to solve problems?
    • Study of biological underpinnings of cognition
    • Examines relationship of cognitive functions to neural/brain activity
  13. Neuroscience Research
    Memory Systems
    • Brain structures associated with memory do not develop until the second helf of the first year
    • Object permanence may rely on the development of these prefrontal structures
  14. Neuroscience Research:
    Understanding Number
    • Violation of expection paradigm
    • Objects and Opaque square study
  15. Social Contextual Approach
    How do infants learn to solve problems?
    • Influened by Vygotsky
    • Social interactions influence cognitive competence
    • guided participantion
    • Cross cultural differences
    • Develop cognitive ability through scaffolding
  16. Environmental influences on cognitive development
    • Nutrition
    • Poverty
    • Longitidinal study
    • Nourished vs not nourished group
  17. Early Intervention: Day Care Approach
    • Abecedarian Intervention program
    • Ramey and colleagues
    • Early intervention: child care and medical vs only medical
  18. Abecedarian Results
    Childcare reduce placement in special ed.
  19. Genie
    • Girl who was isolated from world
    • Didn't devloped language skills and didn't devloped cognitvely very well due to isolation and abuse
  20. First three years: Language development
    • Crying (birth)
    • Cooing (1-2 months)
    • Babbling (6 months)
    • Gestures (8-12 months)
    • First words (10-14 months)
    • Naming explosion (16-24 months)
    • First telegraphic sentences (18-24 months)
    • Sentences with increasing complex syntax (20 to 30 months)
  21. Theories of Language Development
    B.F. Skinner
    • Chains of responses acquired through reinforcement
    • Does not explain creation of novel sentences
    • Does not explain learning of syntax
    • Learned by being reinforce
  22. Theories of Language Development
    Noam Chomsky
    • Human are biological predisposed to learn language
    • Language Acquisition Devise (LAD): biological endowment that enables language acquisition
    • Inborn
  23. Theories of Language Development
    Favorable evidence
    • Unifromity of language milestones across cultures
    • Children create language in absence of input
  24. Theories of Language Development
    Unfavorable evidence
    Does not explain differences in language acquisition abilities
  25. Enhancing Language Development: Motherese
    • Reading facilitate language development
    • Baby talking - way of engaging
Card Set
Human devlopment Exam 2 - 2
notes from lectures