chapter 20

  1. Functions of Blood
    • 1. transporting
    • 2. Regulation
    • 3. Protection
  2. Composition of blood
    • 1. Plasma = liquid matrix
    • 2.Formed elements = RBCs,WBCs, Platelets (not cells)
  3. Plasma
    • differ from intertistial fluids in concentratiion of gases and proteins
    • more oxygen, less carbondioxide
    • more large, dissolved globular proteins
  4. intertistial fluids
    (fluid around cells that left the blood capillaries)
  5. extracellular fluid
    intertistial fluid + plasma + lymph
  6. Plasma proteins
    • synthesized in liver
    • 1. Albumins - smallest, most abundant
    • 2. Globulins
    • 3. Fibrinogen - largest
    • 4. Other - hormones, digested materials, antibacterial proteins
  7. Albumins
    • osmotic pressure
    • transport fatty acids, steroid hormones
  8. Globulins
    • Immune response
    • immunoglobulins = antibodies
    • transport metal ions, lipids, fat-soluble vitamins, hormones
    • insoluble or filtered out by kidneys
  9. Fibrinogen
    • clotting reaction - fibrin strands
    • Serum - blood minus clotting proteins (wat left after clotting process)
  10. Red Blood Cells (RBCs) erythrocytes
    • Biconcave disc (large surface area)
    • the shape give strength and flexibility
    • transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
    • no nucleus, mitochondria, ER or ribosomes (anaerobic)
    • have bags of hemoglobin
    • form stacks (rouleau)
  11. Hemoglobin (Hb)
    1 Hb molecule = 4 globin protein units - each with 1 heme molecule
  12. Heme
    • 1 iron atom
    • iron binds w/c oxygen (weak and reversible)
  13. Sickle-cell Anemia
    • caused by change in one amino acid in Hb molecule
    • Hb - forms stiff rods, spiky and sharp, cresent shape
    • rupture and dam up small vessels
    • treatment = blood transfusion; bone marrow transplant
  14. Blood types
    • determined by surface markers (antigens) on RBC's
    • genetically determined
  15. 3 important antigen markers
    • A, B or none (only inherit 2 genes)
    • Rh (D)
  16. type A blood
    A antigen markers
  17. type B blood
    B antigen markers
  18. Type AB blood
    both A & B antigen markers
  19. type O
  20. Rh-positive
    Rh marker present on RBC cell membrane
  21. Rh-negative
    no Rh marker (antigen)
  22. Which RBC blood type won't get attacked?
    Type O (universal donor)
  23. Rh Factor
    • is another type of antigen found on RBCs
    • Rh+ has Rho (D) antigens
    • Rh - does not
    • Can cause problems when Rh- mother has Rh+ babies
    • - At birth, mother may be exposed to Rh+ blood of fetus
    • - In later pregnancies mom produces Rh antibodies
  24. White Blood Cells (WBCs) Leukocytes
    • small percentage circulate, blood provide transportation to tissue
    • Fight disease and infection
    • chemotaxis - attracted to chemical signs of inflammation or infection
  25. Granular Leukocytes
    Neutrophils - bacterial-killinggranules, active phagocytes (very mobile), short llife, chemical attract other neutrophils to site, have lobe nucleus, most numerous of WBCs, abt twice as big as RBCs

    Eosinophils - go after foreign compounds that have reacted with antibodies, reduce and control inflammation, found a lot when you have allergic or parasitic infection, 2 lobes of nuclie, have red granules

    Basophils - release histamine, exaggerates inflammation, heparin - prevents clotting, stimulate mast cells (histamine), attract basophils and other WBC, rare, have blue-purple look to cytoplasm, granules so dark, might not see nucleus
  26. Agranular leukocytes
    Monocytes - largest WBC, free macrophages form if outside bloodstream), highly mobile, phagocytic

    Lymphocytes - smallest of WBCs, primary cells of lymphatic system, second most numerous , specific immunity, round nucleus and small size
  27. Platelets
    • megakaryocytes - found in red bone marrow
    • contain Ca++, enzymes, serotonin
  28. never let monkeys eat bananas
    percentage in order , greatest density to lowest
Card Set
chapter 20