43 endo

  1. chemical substances that initiate or regulate activity of another organ, system or gland
  2. lvel of hormone in blood regulated by homeostasis mechanism is called
    negative feedback
  3. referred to as the master gland
  4. diabetes mellitus is a disorder of?
  5. hormone produced and secreted by the beta cells of the islets of langerhans in the pancreas
  6. secreated by alpha cells produced by the liver
  7. balance of glucagon and insulin maninatain_____
    constant serum level
  8. function of insulin
    promote conversion of glucose to glycogen

    promote conversion of fatty acid

    stimulate protein synthesis
  9. who should be screened for diabetes
    • anyone over 45
    • obese
    • ethnic groups
    • GDM history
    • hypertension
    • family history
  10. glucose in the urine
  11. excessive thirst
  12. occurs when body cannot use insulin properly
    type 2 DM
  13. results when the pancreas cannot match the bodys need or insulin
  14. GDM when should clients be rechecked
    6 weeks after birth
  15. diabtes contributing factors
    age, weight, excercise, history, ethnicity
  16. what is the goal of therapeutic control of DM
    control blood sugar
  17. what is the cure for diabetes
    no cure
  18. why do clients with type 1 DM require admin of insulin
    to prevent complications of Diabetes
  19. diabetes type that requires insulin
    type 1
  20. determines insulin dosage based on finger stick blood glucose level
    sliding scale
  21. medication that does not increase insulin but works to make insulin more productive
    metformin (glucophage)
  22. What do exocrine glands include? What are they responsible for?
    Sweat glands & Lacrimal glands

    Responsible for secreting substances directly into the ducts that lead to target areas
  23. if any part of the endocrine system malfunctions wht can be the result
    shift in homeostasis w/ a shift in systemic reactions
  24. why is assessment of the endocrine system difficult?
    bc components are not in direct contact
  25. of all the endocrine parts which gland is the close enough to the body for physical asessment
    thyroid gland
  26. what glands make up the endocrine system
    • pancreas
    • pituitary
    • hypothalaus
    • thyroid
    • parathroid
    • adrenal
  27. where is the pancreas located
    horizontally behind the stomach at the level of the first and second lumbar vertebrae
  28. what kind of functions does the pancreas have
    exocrine and endocrine functions
  29. where is the thyroid gland located
    in the neck
  30. what does the thyroid gland store
  31. what does the thyroid gland produce
    thyroxine and triiodothyronine
  32. what does the thyroid gland regulate
    metabolic rate for carbs, proteins, and fat
  33. what does insulin stimulate
    active transport of glucose into muscle and adipose tissue cells
  34. what will the insulin level look like during times of fasting
    insulin will be low but will continue to be secreted along with glucagon
  35. dificiency of insulin results in
    hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia
  36. elevated blood glucose:
  37. low blood glucose:
  38. ____ is characterized by a group of disrders with chronic hyperglycemia
    diabetes mellitus
  39. two precursors to diabetes screening:
    • 1. IGT (impaired glucose intolerance)= the drink
    • 2. IFG (impaired fasting glucose)=reg. lab
  40. IGT screening levels:
    glucose level of 140-199 mg/dl 2 hours after a glucose overload
  41. IFG screening levels:
    fasting glucose of 110-125 mg/dl
  42. this type of diabetes is usually an absolute insulin deficiency so that clients are insulin dependent
    type 1
  43. children and adolescents may develop ______ with type 1 DM
  44. in the abscence of insulin, glucose from food eaten cannot be used or stored and remains in the blood stream resulting in _________
  45. when blood glucose rises and excretes excess glucose in the urine it results in _______
  46. when glucose is eliminated in the urine it also pulls excess water with it, which results in fluid volume deficit that produces sysptoms of _______ & ________
    • polydipsia
    • Polyuria
  47. insulin deficient Pt.'s with DM1 often have impaired metabolisms with the inability to store glucose which can result in ?
    • protein wasting
    • weight loss
    • increased hunger
  48. production of acid called ketones detected in the urine results in diabetic ketoacidosis which is usually seen in which type of DM?
    DM type1
  49. extremely elevated glucose in type 2 DM results in?
    • HHNS
    • (hyperosmolor hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome)
  50. when is diabetes considered under control?
    • 1.when client has ideal body weight & in good health
    • 2.preprandial glucose level is 140 mg/dl
    • 3.postproandial levels do not rise above 180 mg/dl
  51. what does the control of blood glucose involve
    • dietary prescription
    • exercise plan
    • medication
  52. who is the manager of a diabetic treatment plan
    the client
  53. clients with this type of DM will always require insulin to lower the glucose level and prevent complications of DM
    type 1
  54. what is the cornerstone treatment for DM 2
    dietary management
  55. what are the types of insulin?
    • (VSLIP)
    • Very short acting
    • Short acting
    • Long acting
    • Intermediate acting
    • Premixed
  56. peak action for intermediate acting insulin such as
    Humulin R:
    Humulin L:
    • R: 4-12 hrs
    • L: 7-15 hrs
  57. peak hours for short acting humulin R insulin
    2-4 hrs
  58. peak action for log acting humulin U insulin
    10-30 hrs
  59. peak action for very short acting insulin ranges from:
    1/2 - 3 hrs
  60. how should insulin always be measured
    in insulin syringe
  61. what is the only type of insulin that can be given IV.
    regular insulin
  62. other types of insulin can be administered how?
    subq injection
  63. ____ determines insulin dosage based on fingerstick blood glucose level
    sliding scale
  64. why is rotation for injections recommended
    to prevent lipodystrophy
  65. exercise will ______ rate of insulin absorption
  66. if a client is planning to exercise, what should be done for the injection of insulin?
    do NOT inject into areas to be exercised
  67. when mixing a short acting with long acting insulin together what should be done first?
    draw up the regular or clear liquid first
  68. _____ agents are used to traet persons with type 2 dm who are not controlled with diet and exercise
    oral hypoglycemics
  69. ____ is caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone
Card Set
43 endo