Bio-22 Vocab

  1. *Identify the charactersistics of the plant kingdom.
    *Plants are multicellular eukaryotes that have cell walls made of cellulose. They develop from multicellular embryos and carry out photosynthesis using the green pigments chlorophyll a and b.
  2. sporophyte
    the diploid (2N) phase of the plant life cycle
  3. gametophyte
    the haploid (N) phase of the plant life cycle
  4. *To live succesfully on landl what substances must plants obtain from their environment?
    *The lives of plants center on the need for sunlight, water and minerals, gas exchange, and the transport of water and nutrients throughout the plant body.
  5. *From which group of protists did the first plants evolve? How are plants similar to these protists?
    *The first plants evolved from an organsim much like the multicellular green algae living today.
  6. *How is water essential in the life cycle of a byrophyte?
    *Byrophytes have life cucles that depend on water for reproduction. Lacking vascular tissue, these plants can draw up water by osmosis only a few centimeters above the ground.
  7. byrophytes
    mosses and their relatives, or nonvascular plants... this means they dont have vascular tissue or specializaed tissues that conduct water and nutrients
  8. *What are the three groups of byrophytes?
    *Byrophytes include mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
  9. rhizoids
    long, thin cells that anchor byrophytes in the ground and absorb water and minerals from the surrounding soil
  10. gemmae
    small multicellular reproductive structures
  11. *In byrophytes, what does the gametophte do?
    *In byrophytes, the gametophyte is the dominant, recognizable stage of the life cycle and is the stage that carries out most of the plant's photosynthesis.
  12. protonema
    after a moss spore lands in a moist place, it germinates and grows into a mss of tangle green filaments called protonema
  13. antheridia
    where sperm with whiplike tails are produced
  14. archegonia
    where egg cells are produced
  15. vascular tissue
    along with a transport system, they are specialized to conduct water and nutrients throughout the plant
  16. tracheids
    hollow plant cell in xylem tissue with thick cell walls that resists pressure
  17. xylem
    a transport subsystem that carries water upward from the roots to every part of the plant
  18. phloem
    transports solutions of nutrients and carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis
  19. *What are the two types of vascular tissue?
    *Both forms os vascular tissue- xylem and phloem- can move fluids through the plant body, even against the force of gravity.
  20. lignin
    a substance that makes cell walls rigid, enables vascular plants to grow upright and reach great hights
  21. *What are the three phyla of seedles vascular plants?
    *Seedless vascular plants include club mosses (Lycophyta), horsetails (Arthrophyta), and ferns (Pterophyta).
  22. roots
    underground organs that absorb water and minerals
  23. leaves
    photosynthetic organs that contain one or more bundles of cascular tissue
  24. veins
    vascular tissue gathered into veins made of xylem and phloem
  25. stems
    supporting structures that connect roots and leaves, carrying water and nutrients between them
  26. rhizomes
    underground stems in ferns
  27. fronds
    large leaves
  28. *What is the dominant stage ofo the fern life cycle?
    *Ferns and other vascular plants have a life cycle in which the diploid sporophyte is the dominant cycle.
  29. sporangia
    fern sporophytes develop haploid spores on the underside of their fronds in tiny containers---> sporangia
  30. sori
    grouped clusters of sporangia
Card Set
Bio-22 Vocab