1. Chemical equation of Photosynthesis
    6CO2 + 6H2O ---light---> C6H12O6 + 6O2
  2. Photosynthesis is
    A) exergonic
    B) endergonic
    B) endergonic
  3. Stomata
    little pores on underside of leaf to help CO2 to enter the plant stoma (plural version= stomata)
  4. Mesophyll Tissue
    fleshy part of leaf
  5. Thylakoids:
    discs in chloroplasts filled with chlorophyll
  6. Stroma
    fluid filling in chloroplast
  7. Order these from biggest to smallest:
    A) cell
    B) mesophyll tissue
    C) chlorophyll
    D) chloroplast
    E) thylakoid
    Mesophyll tissue ---> cell ---> chloroplast ---> thylakoid ---> chlorophyll
  8. 2 processes that make up Photosynthesis
    • -Light reaction: use light energy to split water; make NADPH and ATP
    • -Calvin Cycle: incorporate light reaction products; change CO2 to G3P to make glucose
  9. NADPH
    electron carrier and coenzyme; NADP+ + H+ ---> NADPH
  10. ATP
    energy molecule
  11. ATP synthase
    enzyme that makes ATP
  12. G3P
    3 carbon sugar used to make glucose (1/2 of glucose)
  13. Reduction
    gain electrons
  14. Oxidation
    lose electrons
  15. LEO says GER
    • Loses Electrons = Oxidation
    • Gain Electrons = Reduction
    • (both happen at same time)
  16. Where does the light reaction occur?
    in the thylakoid membrane
  17. Light reaction process
    • 1) capture light energy with chlorophyll which excites an electron (released)
    • 2) water splits to replace lost electron
    • 3) excited electron passed down Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
    • 4) create H+ gradient (active transport)
    • 5) NADP+ accepts electrons to become NADPH
    • 6) produce ATP (couple with H+ gradient with enzyme ATP synthase)
  18. Where does the Calvin cycle occur?
    in the stroma
  19. Calvin cycle process
    • 1) incorporate/fix CO2
    • 2) use up NADPH and ATP (donating electrons and energy)
    • 3) make G3P (3 carbon sugar = 1/2 of glucose)
  20. What is the importance of NADPH and ATP?
    they connect the light reaction with the Calvin cycle
  21. Photorespiration
    What happens to the plant?
    a wasteful process occurring in hot, dry climates that produces no ATP or sugars

    Stomata must close to avoid wilting; CO2 decreases and O2 increases
  22. C4 plant
    different arrangement of cells and different carbon molecules in Calvin cycle

    examples: corn, sugarcane
  23. CAM plants
    different schedule, only open stomata at nighttime

    examples: cactus, jade plants, pineapple
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