lower limb

  1. When does the lower limb bud appear relative to the upper limb bud?
    lower limb bud appears 2 days after the upper limb bud
  2. How do the upper and lower limbs rotate during development?
    lower limb rotates medially, upper limb rotates laterally
  3. deep fascia of the thigh
    • fascia lata
    • contains saphenous opening, where great saphenous vein joins the femoral vein
  4. deep fascia of the leg
    • crural fascia
    • separates into anterior, lateral, posterior
    • posterior compartment subdivides into superficial and deep layer
  5. deep fascia of the ankle and foot
    • ankle: superior and inferior extensor retinaculum, flexor retinaculum, superior and inferior fibular retinaculum
    • foot: dorsum has thin fascia, plantar fascia is thin over muscles and thickens centrally -> plantar aponeurosis
  6. Branches of internal iliac
    • superior gluteal: thru greater sciatic foramen sup to piriformis
    • inferior gluteal: thru greater sciatic foramen inf to piriformis
    • obturator: thru obturator canal to middle thigh
  7. External iliac
    • becomes femoral artery below inguinal ligament
    • gives off profunda femoris
    • goes thru adductor canal to popliteal fossa, becomes popliteal artery
    • anterior and posterior tibial arteries given off by popliteal
    • posterior tibial artery gives off fibular artery
  8. lumbar plexus
    • I saw icy icky geese looking forward onto london
    • Iliohypogastric (L1)
    • Ilioinguinal (L1)
    • Genitofemoral (L1-2)
    • Lateral femoral cutaneous (L2-3)
    • Femoral (L2-4)
    • Obturator (L2-4)
    • Lumbosacral trunk (L4-5)
  9. femoral nerve
    • innervates iliacus muscle and pectineus muscle
    • all muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh
    • cutaneous branches to the anterior thigh, medial leg, medial foot
  10. obturator
    • thru obturator canal
    • innervates most muscles of medial compartment of thigh
    • skin on medial aspect of thigh
  11. lateral femoral cutaneous
    femoral part of genitofemoral
    • skin on lateral thigh
    • skin on upper medial thigh
    • skin on upper medial thigh
  12. sacral plexus
    • formed by lumbar trunk and spinal nerves S1-4
    • superior gluteal nerve - thru greater sciatic foramen
    • inferior gluteal nerve - thru greater sciatic foramen
    • posterior femoral cutaneous nerve - skin on posterior thigh and inf gluteal region
    • sciatic nerve (largest branch) - tibial nerve (posterior compartment of thigh and leg, plantar surface), common fibular nerve aka peroneal (anterior and lateral compartment of leg
    • pudendal nerve
  13. dermatome pain
    • L2-3: anterior/mid-thigh
    • L4: knee and middle malleolus
    • L5: web between 1st and 2nd toe
    • S1: lateral malleolus
  14. Motor deficiencies in radiculopathy
    • L2-4: knee extension, hip adduction
    • L5: ankle dorsiflexion, big toe extension
    • S1: ankle plantar flexion, knee flexion, hip flexion
  15. Which nerve innervates the medial thigh compartment?
  16. Which nerve innervates the anterior thigh compartment?
    femoral nerve
  17. Which nerves innervate the gluteal region?
    superior and inferior gluteal nerves
  18. Innervation to posterior thigh
    tibial nerve
  19. Innervation to lateral compartment of the leg?
    Common fibular nerve (peroneal) thru superficial fibular nerve branch
  20. Innervation to anterior compartment of leg?
    common fibular nerve (pudendal) thru deep fibular nerve branch
  21. primary innervation to the foot?
    tibial nerve
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  25. femoral triangle
    • base: inguinal ligament
    • medial side: adductor longus
    • lateral side: sartorius
    • floor: iliopsoas and pectineus
    • roof: tensor fascia lata
    • femoral VAN goes thru, great saphenous vein
  26. femoral sheath
    • lateral: femoral artery
    • intermediate: femoral vein
    • medial compartment: lymphatic
    • femoral nerve not enclosed!
  27. structures that pass thru greater sciatic foramen
    • piriformis muscle
    • sciatic nerve, inf gluteal nerve, superior gluteal nerve, pudendal nerve
    • superior gluteal artery/vein, inf gluteal A/V, internal pudendal A/V
  28. structures that pass thru the lesser sciatic foramen
    obturator internus tendon, pudendal nerve, internal pudendal a/v (to the perineum)
Card Set
lower limb
lower limb wk4 blk4