AP HuG Study Guide

  1. An east-west line designated under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.
  2. The science of making maps.
  3. Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
  4. A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data.
    (GIS) Geographic Informational System
  5. A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.
    Global Positioning System (GPS)
  6. A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
    Land Ordinance of 1785
  7. a two-dimensional, or flat representation of Earth’s surface or a portion of it.
  8. A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character.
  9. A north-south line designated in the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.
    principle meridian
  10. The system used to transfer locations from Earth’s surface to a flat map.
  11. An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features.
  12. The acquisition of data about Earth’s surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance method.
    remote sensing
  13. The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator.
  14. The position of anything on Earth’s surface.
  15. The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian.
  16. An internal representation of a portion of Earth’s surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.
    mental map
  17. An arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles.
  18. A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians.
  19. Land created by the Dutch by draining water from an area.
  20. The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
  21. The meridian designated as ) degrees longitude, that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.
    Prime meridian
  22. (or Cultural landscape studies ) An approach to geopgraphy that emphasixes the relationships mong social and physical phenomena in a particular study area.
    Regional studies
  23. A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.
  24. The physical character of a place including climate, water sources, topography, soil, vegetation, latitude and elevation.
  25. The location of a place relative to other places.
  26. The name given to a portion of Earth’s surface.
  27. (or perceptual region) An area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
    Vernacular Region
  28. The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
    Stimulus diffusion
  29. A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
    Transnational corporation
  30. The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy.
    Uneven development
  31. Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on the Earth’s surface.
  32. A square normally 1 mile on each side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the United States into 36 sections
  33. The physical gap or interval between two objects.
  34. A square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into a series of townships.
  35. Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
    Cultural ecology
  36. Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group.
    Cultural landscape
  37. The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people’s distinct tradition.
  38. A nineteenth- and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities.
    Environmental determinism
  39. (or uniform of homogeneous region) An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics.
    Formal region
  40. (or nodal region) – An area organized around a node or focal point.
    Functional Region
  41. The time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian or 0 degrees longitude.
    (GMT) Greenwich Mean Time
  42. An arc that for the most part follows 180 degrees longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross the International Date Line heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. When you go west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead on day.
    International Date Line
  43. The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
    Agricultural density
  44. The total number of people divided by the total land area.
    Arithmetic density
  45. The spread of something over a given area.
  46. The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
    Contagious diffusion
  47. The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area.
  48. The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time.
  49. The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
    Distance Decay
  50. The arrangement of something across Earth’s surface.
  51. The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process.
    Expansion diffusion
  52. Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
  53. The region from which innovative ideas originate.
  54. The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to another persons or places.
    Hierarchical diffusion
  55. The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area
  56. The number of people per unit of area of arable land which is land suitable for agriculture.
    Physiological density
  57. The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
    Relocation diffusion
  58. The scientific study of population characteristics.
  59. The portion of Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement
  60. The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
    (CBR) Crude birth rate
  61. The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
    (CDR) Crude death rate
  62. The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
    Doubling time
  63. The total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in a society.
    (IMR) Infant mortality rate
  64. The percentage of growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
    (NIR) Natural increase rate
  65. The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years
    (TFR) Total fertility rate
  66. Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people
  67. Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population
  68. The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
    Agricultural revolution
  69. The complete enumeration of a population
  70. The process of change in a society’s population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population
    Demographic transition
  71. The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force
    Dependency ratio
  72. A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
    Industrial Revolution
  73. The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
    Life expectancy
  74. Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives
    Medical revolution
  75. A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
    Population pyramid
  76. The number of males per 100 females in the population
    Sex ratio
  77. A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
    (ZPG) Zero population growth
  78. Distinctive causes of death to each stage of the demographic transition.
    Epidemiologic transition
  79. Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis.
  80. Migration from a location.
  81. The area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends
  82. Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors.
    Forced migration
  83. Migration to a new location.
  84. Permanent movement within a particular country.
    Internal migration
  85. Permanent movement from one country to another.
    International migration
  86. Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.
    Interregional migration
  87. An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration
    Intervening obstacle
  88. Permanent movement within one region of a country.
    Intraregional migration
  89. Form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location.
  90. Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition
    Migration transition
  91. All types of movement from one location to another.
  92. The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration.
    Net migration
  93. Factor that induces people to move to a new location.
    Pull factor
  94. Factor that induces people to leave old residences.
    Push factor
  95. People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
  96. Permanent movement undertaken by choice.
    Voluntary migration
  97. Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.
    Chain migration
  98. People who enter a country without proper documents.
    Undocumented Immigrants
  99. Large-scale emigration by talented people.
    Brain drain
  100. Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern and Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.
    Guest workers
  101. In reference to migration, laws that place maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year.
  102. Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.
  103. The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act.
  104. Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogenous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
    Folk culture
  105. A repetitive act performed by a particular individual.
  106. Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
    Popular culture
  107. A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom.
  108. The contribution of a location’s distinctive physical features to the way food tastes.
  109. The dialect of English associated with upper-class Britons living in the London area and now considered standard in the United Kingdom.
    (BRP) British Received Pronunciation
  110. A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
  111. A boundary that separates regions in which different language uses predominate.
  112. A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning
  113. A language that is written as well as spoken.
    Literary tradition
  114. The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents
    Official language
  115. The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
    Standard language
  116. A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer’s language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.
    Creole or creolized language
  117. A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or as old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that the branches derived from the same family.
    Language branch
  118. A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
    Language family
  119. A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
    Language group
  120. A form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient Romans, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents
    Vulgar Latin
  121. The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or a concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English
  122. Dialect spoken by some African Americans.
  123. A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used
    Extinct language
  124. A term used by the Frech for English words that have entered the French language; a combination of français and anglais, the French words for “French” and “English,” respectively
  125. A language that is unrelated to any other languages ad therefore not attached to any language family
    Isolated language
  126. A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
    Lingua franca
  127. A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages
    Pidgin language
  128. Combination of Spanish and English, spoken by Hispanic Americans.
  129. A large and fundamental division within a religion.
  130. A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body.
  131. A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.
    Ethnic religion
  132. The doctrine or belief of the existence of only one god
  133. Belief in or worship of more than one god
  134. A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination
  135. A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location
    Universalizing religion
  136. Belief that objects such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
  137. A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe
  138. During the Middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denot3e a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal or economic pressure
  139. An individual who helps to diffuse a universalizing religion
  140. A follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times
  141. A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes
  142. Time when the Sun is farthest from the equator
  143. A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally.
    Autonomous religion
  144. The basic unit of geographic organization in the Roman Catholic Church
  145. A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control
    Hierarchical religion
  146. The class or distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu is assigned according to religious law
  147. Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
  148. Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas
  149. A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses as low prices because of fear that persons of color will soon move into the neighborhood
  150. Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions
  151. Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor
  152. Belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race
  153. A person who subcribes to the beliefs of racism
  154. A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops
  155. A practice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa
    Triangular slave trade
  156. Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality
  157. Process in which a more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region
    Ethnic cleansing
  158. A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other
  159. Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
  160. Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
  161. A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
  162. Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there
  163. An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state
    Centripetal Force
  164. State that contains more than one ethnicity
    Multi-ethnic state
  165. State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities
    Multinational state
  166. A sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
  167. Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory
  168. A territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent
  169. Control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society
  170. A state that encompasses a very small land area
  171. Ability of a state to govern in territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
  172. An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
  173. Invisible line that marks the extent of a state’s territory
  174. A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly
    Compact state
  175. A state with a long, narrow shape
    Elongated state
  176. Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power
  177. A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea
    Landlocked state
  178. A state that completely surrounds another one
    Perforated state
  179. An otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension
    Prorupted state
  180. An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
    Unitary state
  181. Condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries of alliances of countries
    Balance of Power
  182. An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government
    Federal state
  183. A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory
    Fragmented state
  184. A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control
  185. a country that has progressed further along the developed continuum
    More Developed Country
  186. has made some progress but has more to contiune
    Less developed country
  187. a process of improvment in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
  188. alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker owned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organizing and comply with minimum environmental and safety standards
    fair trade
  189. investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country
    Foreign Direct Investment
  190. compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making
    Gender empowerment measure
  191. compares the level of development of women with both sexes
    gender-related development index
  192. the value of the total output of goods and services produced in a county in a given time period (normally 1 year)
    Gross domestic product
  193. indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by united nations, combining income, literacy rate, education, and life expectancy.
    human development index
  194. the percentage of a conuntry's people who can read and write
    literacy rate
  195. the portion of the economy concerened with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing and forestry
    Primary Sector
  196. the value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it.
  197. the portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials
    Secondary Sector
  198. economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicity owned utilities to private cooperations and charging citizens more for services.
    Structural Adjusment Program
  199. the portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to prople in exchange for payment
    Tertiary sector
  200. a company that conducts research, operated factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located
    Transnational Corporation
  201. the gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy
    Value added
  202. commerical agribusiness characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations
  203. The delberate effort to modify a portion of Earths surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance of economic gain
  204. a grass yielding grain for food
    Cereal grain
  205. husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing
  206. a machine that reaps, threshes and cleans grain while moving over a field
  207. agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
    Commerical farming
  208. grain or fruit gathered from a field as harvest during a particular season
  209. the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil
    Crop Rotation
  210. degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting
  211. harvesting twice a year from the same field
    double cropping
  212. seed of a cereal grass
  213. rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers
    green revolution
  214. the growing of fruits, vegetables and flowers
  215. the outer covering of a seed
  216. a form of subsistance agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
    intensive subsistence farming
  217. the area surronding a city from which milk is supplied
  218. malay word for wet rice, commenly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah
  219. a form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals
    pastoral nomadism
  220. grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals as well as land used for grazing
  221. a large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale usually to a more developed country
  222. the most productive farmland
    prime agriculture land
  223. a form of commericial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area
  224. a machine that cuts grain standing in the field
  225. system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation
    ridge tillage
  226. a flooded field for growing rice
  227. reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds which result from sexual fertilization
    seed agriculture
  228. a form of subsistiance agriculture lin which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and let fallow for a relatively long period
    shifiting cultivation
  229. another name for shifiting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegitation and burning the debris
    slash-and-burn agriculture
  230. wheat planted in the spring and harvasted in the late summer
    spring wheat
  231. farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minize pollution, typically by rotating soilrestoring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides
    sustaninable agriculture
  232. agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
    subsistence agriculture
  233. a patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning
  234. to beat out grain from stalks by trampling it
  235. the seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
  236. commerical gardening and fruit farming so named because truck was a middle english word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities
    truck farming
  237. reproduction of plants by direct cloning from exsisting plants
    vegeative planting
  238. rice planted on dryland in a nursery and then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth
    wet rice
  239. to remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind
  240. wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the early summer
    winter wheat
  241. a location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another
    break-of-bulk point
  242. an industry in which the final product weighs more or compries a greater volume that the inputs
    bulk-gaining industry
  243. an industry in which the final product product weighs less comprises a lower volume than the inputs
    bulk-reducing industry
  244. manufactoring based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution
    cottage industry
  245. form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly
  246. a series of improveents in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufactoring goods
    Industrial Revolution
  247. an industry for which labor costs make up a high percentage of total expenses
    labor-intensive industry
  248. factories built by US companies in Mexico near the U.S. border, to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico
  249. transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid, less-skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries
    new international divison of labor
  250. a decision by a cooperation to turn over much of the responcibility for production to independent suppliers
  251. adaption by companies of flesible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks
  252. a U.S. state that has passed a law preventing a union and company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment
    right-to-work state
  253. Location Factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plants, such as land, labor, and capital
    site factors
  254. Location factors related to the transportation of materials into from a factory
    situation factors
  255. a fabric made by weaving, used in making clothing.
  256. industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement
    basic industries
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AP HuG Study Guide
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