The Vitamins

  1. Vitamins
    • –Organic compounds
    • –Vital to life
    • –Indispensable to body functions
    • –Needed in minute amounts
    • –Noncaloric essential nutrients
  2. The Fat-Soluble Vitamins
    • A, D, E, K
    • -Found in fats and oils of foods
    • -Require bile for absorption
    • -Stored in liver and fatty tissues until the body needs them
    • -In general, absorbed into the lymph
    • -Travel in blood in association with protein carriers
  3. The Water-Soluble Vitamins
    • C and B vitamins
    • -Absorbed directly into blood stream
    • -Travel freely in blood stream
    • -Most are not stored to any great extent
    • -Excess excreted in urine
    • -Lower risk of toxicity than fat-soluble vitamins
  4. Vitamin A
    • Three forms active in the body
    • –Retinol
    • Stored in the liver
    • Converted to other forms as needed
    • –Retinal
    • –Retinoic acid
    • Plant-derived precursor: beta-carotene
    • A Jack of All Trades
    • –Vision
    • –Maintenance of body linings and skin
    • –Immune defenses
    • –Growth of bones and the body
    • –Normal cell development
    • –Reproduction
  5. Vitamin A
    Sources: Fortified millk, carrots, sweet potato, beef liver, apricots, spinach, bok choy
  6. Vitamin A
    • Deficieny in this vitamin can cause sight problems.
    • Carotene-An orange-yellow to red crystalline pigment that exists in three isomeric forms designated alpha, beta, and gamma; it is converted to vitamin A in the liver and is found in animal tissue and certain plants, such as carrots and squash.
  7. Vitamin D
    • Functions as a hormone
    • Plays a role in the brain, heart, stomach, pancreas, skin, reproductive organs, some cancer cells, stimulates cell maturation (including immune system cells)
    • Deficit promotes:
    • –High blood pressure, some cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis

    • Too Little Vitamin D - A Danger to
    • Bones
    • –Rickets
    • Vitamin D deficiency disease in children
    • Characterized by abnormal bone growth
    • Bowed, or knock-knees, outward-bowed chest, knobs on ribs
  8. Vitamin D
    Deficiencies in this vitamin affect bone development.
  9. Vitamin D
    Sources are Salmon, fortified milk, shrimp, sunlight
  10. Vitamin E
    • The Extraordinary Bodyguard
    • –Antioxidant defending the body against oxidative damage
    • –Damage that results when free radicals
    • formed during normal metabolism disrupt the structure of cellular lipids, DNA, proteins

    Free radical activity may lead to cancer, heart disease, or other diseases

    Vitamin E is preferentially oxidized, thus protecting cells
  11. Vitamin E
    Sources are safflower oil, myonnaise, canola oil, sunflower seeds, wheat germ
  12. Vitamin E
    Deficiencies in this vitamin can lead to nerve degeneration, difficulty walking, leg cramps
  13. Vitamin K

    –Synthesis of blood clotting proteins

    • Does not improve clotting in those with diseases such as hemophilia
    • Interferes with function of blood thinners

    –Synthesis of normal form of bone proteins that bind minerals to bone

    Adequate intake may reduce risk of hip fracture

    At birth newborns are given a dose of vitamin K to hold them until vitamin K-producing bacteria establish themselves in their intestinal tract
  14. Vitamin K
    Sources are cabbage, cauliflower, spinach, canola oil, lettuce, soybeans
  15. Vitamin K
    Deficienies in this vitamin can cause hemorrhage, blood clotting.
  16. Vitamin C

    • –Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency
    • –Hazard of long distance seagoing journeys of 200+ years ago
    • –To avoid scurvy, British sailors were given lime juice

    • Maintenance of connective tissues
    • Formation and maintenance of collagen
    • –Component of bones, teeth, skin, tendons, scar tissue, capillaries
  17. Vitamin C
    Sources of this vitamin come from sweet red pepper, orange juice, green peppers, broccoli, strawberries, bok choy,, grapefruit, sweet potato
  18. Vitamin C
    Deficienies in this vitamin can lead to bleeding gums, loosened teeth
  19. The B Vitamins
    • B vitamins act as part of coenzymes
    • –A small molecule that combines with, and activates, an enzyme
    • –Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids
    • –Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, and biotin all help release the energy stored in the energy-yielding nutrients
    • –Folate prevents spina bifida
  20. Beriberi
    A nervous system ailment caused by a thiamine deficiency
  21. Pellagra
    • A vitamin deficiency disease most commonly caused by a chronic lack of niacin.
    • FLaky skin rash on areas exposed to sun
  22. Cancer
    Uncontrolled cell growth, DNA being oxided
  23. The B Vitamins
    Riboflavin, Niacin, Thiamin, Folate, Biotin, Pantothenic Acid, B12, B6
  24. Folalte
    Folate aids in spinal cord development and healing
Card Set
The Vitamins