Textbook authors conclude that, for many contemporary families, gender-based division of labor:
C. gives most of the power to the females in the family
The nationwide survey (discussed at length by Olson and DeFrain) that focused on the strngths of happily married couples revealed that more happy couples than unhappy couples divided household tasks on the basis of
B. personal preference of the spouses
Gender role stereotypes
D. affect psychological development from birth on.
Which of the following is NOT traditionally associated with masculinity?
The traditional view of gender roles
B. grew out of a male-oriented culture
Who was the sociologist who introduced the modern family's "instrumental" and "expressive" roles?
D. Talcott Parsons
In the traditional view, society required that men be ________ and women be ___________
B. instrumental; expressive
An example of an instrumental function is
B. making major financial decisions
Critics of Talcott Parson's traditional view of gender roles suggest that his view
A. all these
Although most research relating to gender focuses on housework and care of children, there is a recent concept in families that considers:
C. emotion work
Emotion work, a recent concept realized by Erickson, includes:
a listening closely to one's partner
b. offering encouragement
c. showing appreciation
d. all of these
d. all of these
C. the current trend among many couples making a serious commitment to each other and a contemporary model stressing equality in committed relationships
an example of the double standard in gender roles is
B. society's greater acceptance of male sexual freedom than female sexual freedom
Margaret Mead was an anthropologist who studied gender roles in different
Results of Margaret Mead's research on gender roles and culture suggest that
C. gender roles vary widely from culture to culture
Gender roles are:
D. expectations about people's attitudes and behaviors based on whether they are female or male
Critics of Margaret Mead's research have found that in 33 different societies around the world
D. all of these
The percentage of heterosexual couples with and without children, where both partners are employed in today's society, is approximately
Strain-based demands include:
B. workload pressures
Which of the following is NOT a theory described in the text that attempts to explain "machismo" in Mexican American culture?
B. Machismo is taught to make children by Mexican American mothers to guard against enemies
Which culture traditionally includes some matrilineal traition in which women owned houses, tools, and agricultural land?
B. American Indian
Some reason that make african american women less likely to accept a femisist agenda are that
D. they are hesitant to conflict with African American males who share their racial oppression and they have been less liekly to experience the housewife role.
Which of the following are accurate examples of the varied gender roles of American Indian women?
B. a woman can be elected tribal chief in some tribes and some tribes have religious beliefs against contraception and abortion.
Which theory about gender role development is concerned with obsering how people reinforce each other's gender-related behavior?
A. social learning theory
Which theory links gender role development to the maturation of the child's thinking processes?
B. cognitive development theory
Which thoery suggest that one's individual gender roles are difficult to change unless other family members also change?
B. Family systems theory
Which theory challenges traditional gender roles?
B. feminist theory
Which of the following statements regarding gender role development is NOT supported by a social learning theory?
D. children hold flexible views of appropriate gender role behavior that become more rigid in adulthood
Cognitive development theory suggest that
D. children create gender identity, gender role sterotypes, and values in their minds in their efforts to understand the world around them
Social learning and cognitive development theories have been criticized for
B. all of these
According to family systems theory, a young married man who shares household tasks with his wife is likely to_______ when he visits his parents who maintain traditional gender roles
C. return to the behavior expected by his family of orgin
In the mid-1990's the Gallup Poll surveyed people in 22 countries about perceived traits of males, and perceived traits of females. The findings indicated that
C. all of these
Which of the following is NOT congruent with feminist theory?
A. rejecting traditional masculine characteristics
Our textbook authors posit that with respect to contemporary gender roles in the US
E. both females and males have desirable, and undesirable, traits that are not based on their sex
Which of the following is MOST true of family power?
B. Power creates reciprocal causation
In Sandy and Dana's couple relationship, Sandy accepts a role relationship in which Dana has the right to request Sandy's compliance. Which kind of power is Sandy giving to Dana?
Robert Blood and Don Wolfe's classic study, Husbands and Wives (1960), found that the balance of power in a marriage is related to the relative money, education level, and occupational prestige of each partner. This led them to propose
D. the resource theory of power
A power based that arises because one person is more dependent than the other or more concerned about keeping the relationship alive is called:
C. the principle of leaset interest
An example of assertiveness as a family power process is
B. "I would like you to call me if you are going to be late"
The power pattern in which each spouse has about equal authority but in different areas of life is called
C. autonomic pattern
Which of the following is an example of a syncratic pattern of marital power?
A. both partners go to car dealers to select a new car and to the department store to pick out wallpaper.
Spouses express power in their interactions in several different ways. The interaction in which one partner is dominant and one is submissive is called
A. complementary interaction
The following dialogue is an example of a __________ marital power interaction. He says, what do you want to do tonight? She says I'm willing to go out if you like or stay home if you would rather. He says do you think we have enough money to go out right now she says we can stay home if you think we don't have enough money
C. submissive symmetry
What tearm refers to how family demands affect work performance?
A. family to work influence
What term best describes this idea: the aim of the power interaction is to defeat the other-that is, a win-lose approach?
C. competitive symmetry
One partner is dominant and one partner is submissive . this is
B. complementary interaction
Each spouse has about equal authority but in different areas of life. this is
D. autonomic power pattern
Authority is shared and decisions are made on a joint basis. This describes:
C. syncratic power pattern
Both spouses try to give control of the situation to the other. This describes:
D. submissive symmetry
Phrases like the opposite sex accentuate the difference between men and women and phrases like the other gender are less likely to reinforce gender stereotypes
Time-based demands focus on the idea that time at work means less time for family life
Gender role stereotypes are the individuals' sense of being male or female
Talcott Parson's theory was criticized because it focused on the problems of traditional family structure and ignored its positive aspects
Mental work inclues listening closely to a partners thoughts
With respect to contemporary gender roles, female and male traits are assumed not to be based on biological sex
The author determined that emotion work is a gender issue that looks differnt for men and women
Although many egalitarian couples believe that housework should be shared equally between husbands and wives in the US wives still bear almost all the responsibility for the housework
Gender-based language reinforces the misguided notion that men are more competent and ratoina than women
The unequal division of mental work affects men's marital satisfaction more than women's
Because people today may be caring for aging parents as well as their own children and because there are more types of families than in previous years, the work and family relationship is evenn more complex
American indian culture is generally more male-centered than Mexican American or African American cultures, as evidenced by the prohibition against women in tribal government
Gender identity is a sense of being male or female and what that means in todays society
Social learning and cognitive development theories were synthesized to describe the effect of positive labeling of gender-specific behaviors on a child's motivation to perform theses behaviors
Family systems that are rigid and enmeshed on the couple and family Map tend to be less open tand more dependent on one another
the Kind of power pattern in which one person is thought to have the normatively prescribed right to dteremine other family members behavior is called referent power
Family power is defined as the ability of one individual to change the behavior of the other family members
A mid-1990s Gallup Poll survey of people in 22 countries found that, across cultures, men were perceived as more aggressive, ambitious, and courageous than women
Feminist theory rejects traditional masculine characteristics
the resource theory of family power suggest that the balance of power in a marriage is related to the relative resources each spouse has
While personal income was related to a spouses power employment alone had no influence
Family power outcomes are commonly studied by observational research that measures family members assertive statments and their consequences
Based on their classic study Husbands and Wives (1960) Blood and Wolfe proposed the resource theory of power
Terry is more interested than Ricky in keeping their relationship alive. The principle of reward power predicts that Ricky will have more power in the relationship than Terry
You don't help out enough around the house this is an example of assertiveness