Chapter 7

  1. Textbook authors conclude that, for many contemporary families, gender-based division of labor:

    C. gives most of the power to the females in the family
  2. The nationwide survey (discussed at length by Olson and DeFrain) that focused on the strngths of happily married couples revealed that more happy couples than unhappy couples divided household tasks on the basis of

    B. personal preference of the spouses
  3. Gender role stereotypes

    D. affect psychological development from birth on.
  4. Which of the following is NOT traditionally associated with masculinity?

    D. sensitivity
  5. The traditional view of gender roles

    B. grew out of a male-oriented culture
  6. Who was the sociologist who introduced the modern family's "instrumental" and "expressive" roles?

    D. Talcott Parsons
  7. In the traditional view, society required that men be ________ and women be ___________

    B. instrumental; expressive
  8. An example of an instrumental function is

    B. making major financial decisions
  9. Critics of Talcott Parson's traditional view of gender roles suggest that his view

    A. all these
  10. Although most research relating to gender focuses on housework and care of children, there is a recent concept in families that considers:

    C. emotion work
  11. Emotion work, a recent concept realized by Erickson, includes:
    a listening closely to one's partner
    b. offering encouragement
    c. showing appreciation
    d. all of these
    d. all of these
  12. Equalitarianism is

    C. the current trend among many couples making a serious commitment to each other and a contemporary model stressing equality in committed relationships
  13. an example of the double standard in gender roles is

    B. society's greater acceptance of male sexual freedom than female sexual freedom
  14. Margaret Mead was an anthropologist who studied gender roles in different

    D. cultures
  15. Results of Margaret Mead's research on gender roles and culture suggest that

    C. gender roles vary widely from culture to culture
  16. Gender roles are:

    D. expectations about people's attitudes and behaviors based on whether they are female or male
  17. Critics of Margaret Mead's research have found that in 33 different societies around the world

    D. all of these
  18. The percentage of heterosexual couples with and without children, where both partners are employed in today's society, is approximately

    B. 50%-66%
  19. Strain-based demands include:

    B. workload pressures
  20. Which of the following is NOT a theory described in the text that attempts to explain "machismo" in Mexican American culture?

    B. Machismo is taught to make children by Mexican American mothers to guard against enemies
  21. Which culture traditionally includes some matrilineal traition in which women owned houses, tools, and agricultural land?

    European American
    B. American Indian
  22. Some reason that make african american women less likely to accept a femisist agenda are that

    D. they are hesitant to conflict with African American males who share their racial oppression and they have been less liekly to experience the housewife role.
  23. Which of the following are accurate examples of the varied gender roles of American Indian women?

    B. a woman can be elected tribal chief in some tribes and some tribes have religious beliefs against contraception and abortion.
  24. Which theory about gender role development is concerned with obsering how people reinforce each other's gender-related behavior?

    A. social learning theory
  25. Which theory links gender role development to the maturation of the child's thinking processes?

    B. cognitive development theory
  26. Which thoery suggest that one's individual gender roles are difficult to change unless other family members also change?

    B. Family systems theory
  27. Which theory challenges traditional gender roles?

    B. feminist theory
  28. Which of the following statements regarding gender role development is NOT supported by a social learning theory?

    D. children hold flexible views of appropriate gender role behavior that become more rigid in adulthood
  29. Cognitive development theory suggest that

    D. children create gender identity, gender role sterotypes, and values in their minds in their efforts to understand the world around them
  30. Social learning and cognitive development theories have been criticized for

    B. all of these
  31. According to family systems theory, a young married man who shares household tasks with his wife is likely to_______ when he visits his parents who maintain traditional gender roles

    C. return to the behavior expected by his family of orgin
  32. In the mid-1990's the Gallup Poll surveyed people in 22 countries about perceived traits of males, and perceived traits of females. The findings indicated that

    C. all of these
  33. Which of the following is NOT congruent with feminist theory?

    A. rejecting traditional masculine characteristics
  34. Our textbook authors posit that with respect to contemporary gender roles in the US

    E. both females and males have desirable, and undesirable, traits that are not based on their sex
  35. Which of the following is MOST true of family power?

    B. Power creates reciprocal causation
  36. In Sandy and Dana's couple relationship, Sandy accepts a role relationship in which Dana has the right to request Sandy's compliance. Which kind of power is Sandy giving to Dana?

    E. legitimate
  37. Robert Blood and Don Wolfe's classic study, Husbands and Wives (1960), found that the balance of power in a marriage is related to the relative money, education level, and occupational prestige of each partner. This led them to propose

    D. the resource theory of power
  38. A power based that arises because one person is more dependent than the other or more concerned about keeping the relationship alive is called:

    C. the principle of leaset interest
  39. An example of assertiveness as a family power process is

    B. "I would like you to call me if you are going to be late"
  40. The power pattern in which each spouse has about equal authority but in different areas of life is called

    C. autonomic pattern
  41. Which of the following is an example of a syncratic pattern of marital power?

    A. both partners go to car dealers to select a new car and to the department store to pick out wallpaper.
  42. Spouses express power in their interactions in several different ways. The interaction in which one partner is dominant and one is submissive is called

    A. complementary interaction
  43. The following dialogue is an example of a __________ marital power interaction. He says, what do you want to do tonight? She says I'm willing to go out if you like or stay home if you would rather. He says do you think we have enough money to go out right now she says we can stay home if you think we don't have enough money

    C. submissive symmetry
  44. What tearm refers to how family demands affect work performance?

    A. family to work influence
  45. What term best describes this idea: the aim of the power interaction is to defeat the other-that is, a win-lose approach?

    C. competitive symmetry
  46. One partner is dominant and one partner is submissive . this is

    B. complementary interaction
  47. Each spouse has about equal authority but in different areas of life. this is

    D. autonomic power pattern
  48. Authority is shared and decisions are made on a joint basis. This describes:

    C. syncratic power pattern
  49. Both spouses try to give control of the situation to the other. This describes:

    D. submissive symmetry
  50. Phrases like the opposite sex accentuate the difference between men and women and phrases like the other gender are less likely to reinforce gender stereotypes
  51. Time-based demands focus on the idea that time at work means less time for family life
  52. Gender role stereotypes are the individuals' sense of being male or female
  53. Talcott Parson's theory was criticized because it focused on the problems of traditional family structure and ignored its positive aspects
  54. Mental work inclues listening closely to a partners thoughts
  55. With respect to contemporary gender roles, female and male traits are assumed not to be based on biological sex
  56. The author determined that emotion work is a gender issue that looks differnt for men and women
  57. Although many egalitarian couples believe that housework should be shared equally between husbands and wives in the US wives still bear almost all the responsibility for the housework
  58. Gender-based language reinforces the misguided notion that men are more competent and ratoina than women
  59. The unequal division of mental work affects men's marital satisfaction more than women's
  60. Because people today may be caring for aging parents as well as their own children and because there are more types of families than in previous years, the work and family relationship is evenn more complex
  61. American indian culture is generally more male-centered than Mexican American or African American cultures, as evidenced by the prohibition against women in tribal government
  62. Gender identity is a sense of being male or female and what that means in todays society
  63. Social learning and cognitive development theories were synthesized to describe the effect of positive labeling of gender-specific behaviors on a child's motivation to perform theses behaviors
  64. Family systems that are rigid and enmeshed on the couple and family Map tend to be less open tand more dependent on one another
  65. the Kind of power pattern in which one person is thought to have the normatively prescribed right to dteremine other family members behavior is called referent power
  66. Family power is defined as the ability of one individual to change the behavior of the other family members
  67. A mid-1990s Gallup Poll survey of people in 22 countries found that, across cultures, men were perceived as more aggressive, ambitious, and courageous than women
  68. Feminist theory rejects traditional masculine characteristics
  69. the resource theory of family power suggest that the balance of power in a marriage is related to the relative resources each spouse has
  70. While personal income was related to a spouses power employment alone had no influence
  71. Family power outcomes are commonly studied by observational research that measures family members assertive statments and their consequences
  72. Based on their classic study Husbands and Wives (1960) Blood and Wolfe proposed the resource theory of power
  73. Terry is more interested than Ricky in keeping their relationship alive. The principle of reward power predicts that Ricky will have more power in the relationship than Terry
  74. You don't help out enough around the house this is an example of assertiveness
Card Set
Chapter 7
Exam 2