1. Motivation
    forces that determine person's behavior
  2. Nature of Motivation
    • •Direction: possible behaviors
    • the individual could engage in

    • •Effort: how hard the
    • individual will work

    • •Persistence: whether the
    • individual will keep trying or give up
  3. Intrinsically motivated
    behavior performed for own's sake
  4. extrinsically motivated
    performed to get outcome or avoid punishment
  5. Expectancy Theory
    Motivation high when workers think high effort will get high output

    • •Expectancy: the belief that
    • effort (input) will result in a certain level of performance

    • •Instrumentality: the belief that
    • performance results in the attainment of outcomes

    • •Valence: how desirable each of
    • the available outcomes from the job is to a person
  6. Need Theories
    • what needs people are trying to satisfy at work and what
    • outcomes will satisfy those needs
  7. Maslow's
    Self-actualization: Realize one's full potential; give people opportunity to use skills

    Esteem: feel good about one's capabilities; grant promotions and recognize accomplishments

    Belongingness: social interaction; social functions

    Safety: security and stability; job security and medical benefits

    physiological: basic needs; paycheck
  8. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
    outcomes that lead to higher motivation and job satisfaction

    • Motivator needs relate to the nature
    • of the work itself and how challenging it is

    Hygiene needs are related to the physical and psychological context in which the work is performed
  9. Need for Achievement
    desire to perform challenging tasks
  10. Need for Affiliation
    an individual is concerned about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations
  11. Need for Power
    individual desires to control
  12. Equity Theory
    people’s perceptions of the fairness
  13. Equity
    Justice, fairness
  14. Inequity
    lack of fairness
  15. Underpayment
    not getting what you deserve

    decrease input, ask for desired outcome
  16. overpayment
    same input but higher pay
  17. Goal Setting Theory
    • identifying the types of goals that are effective in
    • producing high levels of motivation
  18. Learning Theories
    on increasing employee motivation and performance by linking outcomes that employees receive to the performance of desired behaviors
  19. Operant Conditioning
    • People learn to perform behaviors that lead to desired
    • consequences

    • 1) Positive Reinforcement: reward for good act
    • 2) Negative reinforcement: take something bad away in exchange for good behavior
    • 3) Extinction: remove what is reinforcing bad behavior
    • 4) Punishment: negative consequence to discourage bad behavior
  20. Social Learning Theory
    • how learning and motivation are influenced by people’s
    • thoughts
  21. Vicarious Learning
    Observing Others
  22. Self-Reinforcement
    Outcome given by self
  23. Self-efficacy
    belief in your ability to perform successfully
  24. Pay as Motivator
    Expectancy: the association between performance and outcomes, must be high for motivation to be high.

    Need Theory: pay is used to satisfy many needs.

    Equity Theory: pay is given in relation to inputs

    • Goal Setting Theory: pay is linked to attainment of goals.

    Learning Theory: outcomes (pay), is distributed upon performance of functional behaviors.
  25. Merit Pay Plan
    • compensation plan that bases pay on based on individual,
    • group and/or organization performance.
    • 1) Piece-rate Pay: Employee’s pay is

    • based on the number of units that the employee produces
    • 2)Commission Pay:Employee’s pay is based on a percentage of sales that the employee makes
    • 3)Scanlon plan:focuses on reduced expenses or cutting costs
    • 4)Profit sharing:employees receive a

    share of an organization’s profits
Card Set
test 4