Ch. 6, MGMT 641 exam 2

  1. The power of nice
    it pays to be nice

    growth is the result not of fear and intimidation, but of smiles and compliments

    small kindness, the smiles, gestures, compliments, favors,

    • -Positive impressions, seeds that grow and expand
    • -someone unimportant can become an importatnt contact
    • -nice must be atuomatic
    • -harness the power of empathy
  2. Can you learn to be a leader? Behavioral perspective
    this approach argues that behaviors, not traits, importatnt

    early behavioral theorist say two broad categories; task oriented and relationship oriented. These are similar to the two trait dimensions of the trait theorist; competency and warmth.
  3. Douglas McGregor; Theory X and Theory Y, Task oriented leaders
    • he said managers either believe theory X or Y
    • X all workers are lazy, incapable of taking initiative or or making decision, need to be closely monitiored

    Y workers will be intrinsically motivated if given the chance to take pride in their work and achievements
  4. Five studies with 12,000 managers
    managers who were theory x were more likely to be lower achieving managers
  5. University of Michigan studies
    classified leaders on a single dimension that ranged from employee centered to job centered, but not both
  6. Ohio State "High-High Model"
    • Consideration: leaders how consideration when they support employee's needs, by being friendly caring.....
    • -this increases job satisfaction and commitment

    • Initiating structure: these leaders explain work roles, specify how to do the work, assign task and schedule production, and set high performance standards
    • -this improves task performance

    • Recommends that leaders do both
  7. Managerial Grid; later known as Leadership Grid
    • classifies leadership along two dimensions similar to ohio state high high, then takes the five different combinations and puts them into a grid
    • concern for people
    • &
    • concern for results

    • impoverished management;low people & low rslts, provide little direction or support
    • authority-compliance management; high rslts & low pple, demanding controlling, but organized and effcnt
    • middle of the road; moderate on both dimensions, tend to balance both needs
    • team management; high in both, get memebers input, excellent communicators and problem solvers
  8. The Forgotten Ones
    • 2004 meta-analysis of behavioral approaches to sum up initiating structure and consideration
    • -correlation between consideration and overall leadership is impressive
    • -correlation for consideration with leadership is considerably larger than correlation for initiating structure.
    • -intiating structure still important

    • -Initiaitng structure strongest in military
    • -consideration strongest in education
  9. Satisfaction
    consideration much more strongly related to follower job satisfaction compared to initating structure

    -consideration is even more strongly correlated with follower satisfaction with the leader, and is also bigger than the correlation for initiating structure and follower satisfaction with the leader.

    -still initiating strucuture correlation with job satisfaction and satisfaction with leader still fairly large and positive

    • -contrary to early perspective that task leaders decrease employee satisfaction
    • - leaders high on inititng strtctr generally improve job satisfaction and are respected by their subordinates
  10. Group organization performance
    Judge, Piccolo, and Ilies (2004) found that consideration and initiating structure equally effective

    -these results support the high high model and leaders should maximize both dimensions
  11. Aviation Rescue Fire Fighters
    Australian firefighters, leaders were high on initiating structure, but there was a problem with job satisfaction. The leaders got training in consideration techniques and later studies showed after this satisfaction with supervisor was high. Initiating structure and consideration were positively related to satisfaction w/leader.

    • -important because this supports theory that leaders can be trained to be more considerate.
    • -also showed that both dimensions are important in field of work once thought that initiating structure was only important thing.
  12. A Manufacturing Example:
    Organizational Commitment and Reduce Stress by Initiating Structure and Showing
    • initiating structure reduces stress:
    • •reduces role ambiguity and role conflict
    • •useful rules and policies
    • •employees
    • may appreciate knowing what to do
    • •increases
    • perceptions of dependability

    • •Consideration reduces stress:
    • •listen
    • to employees’ problems and suggestions
    • •allowing
    • employees to blow off steam
    • •friendly
    • social interaction increases commitment while reducing stress
  13. How initiating structure and consideration increase organizational commitment?
    Consideration increased organizational commitment and reduced stress directly

    initiating structure increased organizational commitment only because it reduced stress worked entirely through reducing stress
  14. Zimmerman, Mount, and Goff (2008), Public Transportation
    • •When
    • supervisors’ evaluated leaders, consideration was over six times greater than
    • initiating structure in improving goal performance
  15. •Caterina Fake, cofounded Flickr
    • •She’s
    • found that working on the right stuff is more important than working long hours
    • on the wrong things: spot patterns through causal chit-chat

    -Daydreaming vs. focused, methodical reasoning
  16. Men and Women around the World: Do they use Different
    Leadership Behaviors?
    • •27%
    • of managers around the world were female
    • •women
    • were more likely to be managers in the Anglo, English speaking cultures like
    • the United States and the United Kingdom
    • •The
    • correlations were negative for the percentages of women managers in
    • Germanic-European cultures, Latin-American, Sub-Sahara, and Arab cultures

    • Carless,1998 and Eaglys&Johnson 1990 found moderately small correlation that women were rated higher by subordinates on consideration
    • &
    • very small correlation that women were higher on initiating structure

    -Overall not too many differences, but Anglo and Euros are lower in initiating structure
  17. Financial evidence for consideration vs. initiating structure, Dutch researchers
    • •When
    • using a multiple regression to control for store size and similar factors,
    • initiating structure had no effect on net profit or on controllable costs

    • •Both consideration and charisma influenced net profits and
    • controllable costs
  18. Thatcher
    • according to steinber; Thatcher
    • has a dominant personality backed up by conscientiousness and a strong work
    • ethic with involved, hands on leadership.
Card Set
Ch. 6, MGMT 641 exam 2
chapter 6