Social Inequalities

  1. Stratified
    Ranking of people associated with status; hierarchy Location on the "ladder" allows for the amount of rewards power opportunity and resources; leads to life outcomes. It creates structural problems.
  2. Social Construction of Race
    Social construction based on how people define themselves and others based on physical/social(cultural/ethnic) characteristics. Classifications are a function of how people define label and categorize. Created to benefit the dominate group and creates stratification.
  3. Minority/ Subordinate Group
    • Minority groups is disadvantaged by power, privilage, and acess to resources and opportunities relative to the dominate group. Classified by race, disability sexual orientation, class gender etc. 5 things make someone subordinate.
    • -involuntary membership
    • -intergroup marriage
    • -awareness of being subordinate
    • -common physical/cultural characterisics shared
    • -unequal treatment
  4. Ideology
    Beliefs and goals a doctorine and philosophy/ a set of aims or ideas that usually direct goals, expectations and behaviors.
  5. Structure and Ideology
    • The relationship interplays with eachother.
    • Constantly changing
    • reflexive relationship
    • Because of the common beliefs and ideologies it reinforces the structure of something.
    • Ex. Poor people are dumb: inner city schools not getting better because it is just that they are dumb not that the structure is wrong.
  6. Structure
    • Every aspect is effected by social structure.
    • The structure is Macro institutions that shape opportunities and allow for resources that lead to life out comes.
    • Three things that lead to life outcomes
    • -observable patterns of practice
    • -underlying principles of social arrangment
    • -reoccuring patterns of social behavior.
  7. Refugees
    People living outside their country of citizenship for fear of political or religious persecution.
  8. Glass ceiling
    The barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified worker because of gender or minority membership.
  9. Glass Wall
    The barrier that blocks the lateral movement of opportunity because of gender or minority membership.
  10. Glass Elevator
    The male advantage experienced in occupations dominated by women.
  11. Reverse Discrimination
    Actions that cause better qualifyed white men to be passed over for women and minority men.
  12. Affirmative Action
    Positive efforts to recruit subordinate group members including women for jobs, promotions and educational opportunities.
  13. Informal governement
    Transfers of money goods or services that are not reported to the government. common in inner city neighborhoods and poverty stricten areas.
  14. Total Discrimination
    The combo of current discrimination with past discrimination created by poor schools and menial jobs.
  15. Institutional discrimination
    A denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals or groups resulting from the normal operation of a society.
  16. Absolute Deprivation
    The minimum level of subsistence below which families or individuals should not be expected to exsist.
  17. Discrimination
    The denial of opportunites of equal rights to indivudals and groups because of predujuice or other arbutrariy reasons.
  18. Contact Hypothesis
    An interactionist perspective stating that innergroup contact between people of equal status in noncompetitive circumstances will reduce predjudice.
  19. Stereotypes
    Unreliable, exaggerated, generalizations about all members of a group that do not take individual differences into account.
  20. Normative Sociology
    The view that prejudice is influenced by societal norms and situations that incourage or discourage the tolerance of minorities.
  21. Color-Blind Racism
    Use of race-neutral principles to defend the racially unequal status quo.
  22. Prejudice
    A negative attitude toward an entire category of people, such as racial or ethnic minority
  23. Racism
    A doctorine that one race is superior.
  24. Racial formation
    Sociohistorical process by which racial categories are created, inhibited, transformed, and destroyed.
  25. Marxist/ conflict Theory
    A sociological approach that assumes that the social structure is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups.
  26. Assimilation
    Process by which a subordinate indivudial or group takes on the characteristics of the dominate group. A+B+C = A
  27. Racial Group
    A group that is socially set apart because of obvious physical differences.
  28. Stratification
    a structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal rewards and power in a society.
  29. Class
    Defined by max webber, people who share similar levels of wealth
  30. Durkheimian/ Functionalist theory
    A sociological approach emphasizing how parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability. ( all parts to survive.)
  31. Sociological imagination
    The ability to discern the relationship between individual experience and social forces in the larger society
  32. Kernal of truth
    The fact where if you take one individuals experience and either place them as the one exception or follow it into the stereotype.
  33. Empericism
    • Three things
    • -factual
    • -observable
    • -verifyable
  34. Pluralism
    • Reversed ethnic diversity and the multiplicity of ethinic cultures in each respected and accorded status.
    • A+B+C=A+B+C
  35. Individual Discrimination
    The denial of opportunities and resources and equal rights to an individual
  36. White Privlage
    • Whites give little thought to be white
    • only important bc we made it important
    • invisible
    • being color blind allows for more invisiblities
    • rights given just because we are white.
  37. Notion of Middle class
    • no clear definition
    • the middle 20% which earn between 40 and 95K
    • not paycheck to paycheck give you middle class
    • owning a car and house, paying for college, healthcar, retirment, family vacation
  38. Resource Diversion
    Where you are in the structure relates to what resources one gets.
  39. Concepts of Empiricism
    • Factual
    • observable
    • verifiable
  40. Quantitative Methods
    Rely heavily on statistical and mathematical techniques to answer questions about social behavior. Quantitative methods are used more widely since the last 50 years.
  41. Qualitative Methods
    • Research technique designed to obtain subjective understanding, interpretation and meaning of social behavior.
    • GOALS: gain deep understanding of how people perceive the world, what people are doing, how to interpret behavior in ways that the people themselves can understand, how people confer meaning to situations and to the meaning of their actions, thoughts and emotions.
  42. Research Process
    • 1. find problem/question
    • 2. Review the Literature
    • 3.Specify a Research Question
    • 4. Develop a hypothesis
    • 5. Turn abstract concepts into concrete variables and the operationalization of variables
  43. Intersectionality
    • Acknowledges the fact that gender intersects with race, class, and exploitation of women, minorities and other marginalized people.
    • R,C,G cannot be understood separately because they are interrelated in understanding the experiences of social inequality. Therefore, we need focus on differences based on the intersection of R,C,G to truly understand inequality.
  44. Labeling Approach
    • How groups become defined and labeled
    • labels and the self-fulfilling prophecy: meaning if the people who are being defined into their stereotypes they also do not do anything and this hurts their self-fulfilling prophecy.
  45. Creation of Subordinate group status
    • 1. Migration
    • 2. annexation of territory
    • 3. Colonialism
  46. Consequences of subordinate status
    • Extermination
    • genocide
    • expulsion
    • sucession
    • segregation
    • fusion
    • assimilation
    • puralism
  47. Scapegoat Theory
    occurs when an individual group projects and blames their own inadequacies or problems onto another group
  48. Authortarian Personality Theory
    Idea that prejudice is influenced by upbringing and early lessons which help to formulate the prejudiced personality
  49. Exploitation theory
    a Marxist theory that views racial subrodination in the US as a manifestation of the class system inherent in capitalism.
  50. Normative Approach
    The view that prejudice is influenced by societal norms and situations that encourage or discourage the tolerence of minorities
  51. Relative deprivation
    • a conscious experience of a negative difference.
    • based on the discrepency between cultural expectations and actual realitites.
  52. PAtterns of Immigration to the US
    • 1. numbers have fluctuated due to government policies
    • 2. settlement has not been uniform but is centered in certain regions and cities
    • 3. Sources of Immigration change across time
  53. Naturalization
    Conferring of citizenship on a person after birth, process outlined by congress that gives same benefits as to native-born US citizens except that cannot serve as president of the US
  54. Globalization
    Worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements and financials markets thrutrade, movements of people and the exchange of ideas.
  55. whiteness
    nothing more than an expression of race privilege
  56. False Consciousness
    • a class' acceptance of an ideology that is contrariety to the best interest of the class
    • because it is dependant upon where you land in the structure
  57. Class consciousness
    Realization that you are getting no where and there is a disadvantaged group
  58. Caste System
    • No mobility
    • ex. marry within the class
  59. Class system
    • Limited mobility
    • could be some movement, but no large jumps.
  60. Measure class by
    • objective method:
    • reputational standing
    • self-identification
  61. Patterns of social mobility
    • horizontal
    • vertical
    • intragenerational-own generation
    • intergenerational-parents generation
  62. Cultural poverty
    • Looks at the characteristics of the poor to explain their difficulties
    • poor people have a set of norms, values and rules that differeent from the rest of us and it is these differential norms that keeps them poor.
    • CONTROVERSIAL and weakest explaniation-CANNOT find empirical support
  63. Structural poverty
    argues that the social arrangments created by a capitalist class system creats a system that works against the poor, those with low socioeconomic status, does not promote upward mobility of the poor, opportunities needed don't exist.
Card Set
Social Inequalities
Social Inequalities