Each side of the cerebral cortex is customarily described as having four lobes, called the __, __, __ and __ (each lob is named for a bone of hte skull.)Reasearchers have identified a number of functional areas within each lobe. These include __, each of which receives and processes a specific type of sensory info, and __, which integrate the info from various parts of the brain.
primary sensory areas
The cerebral cortex receives sensory input from two types of sources. SOme input is received from dedicated sensory organs, like the eyes and nose. Other sensory input relies on receptors in the hand, scalp, and elsewhere. These __ receptors provide info about touch, pain, pressure, temp., and the position of muscles and limbs.
Most sensory info coming into the cortex is directed via the __ to primary sensory areas w/in the brain lobes. The __ directs different types of input to distinct locations: visual info to the __; auditory input to the __; and __ information to the __.
Info about taste also goes to the __, but to a region separate from that for __. Olfactory info is sent first to reigions of the cortex that are similar in mammals nad reptiles and then via the thalamus to an interior part of hte __ lobe.
Info receied at the primary sensory areas is passed along to nearby associateion areas, which process particular features in the sensory input. In trhe __, for ex., some groups of neurons in the primary visual area are specifically sensitvie to rays of light oriente d in a particular direction. In the visual association area, info related to such features is combined in a region dedicated to recognizing complex images, like faces.
Integrated sensory info passes to the frontal association area, which helps plan actions and movement. The __ may then generate motor commands that cause particular behaviors- moving a limb or saying hi, for ex. These commands consist of action potentials produced by neurons in the motor cortex, which lies at the rear of the __. The __ travel along axons to the brainstem and spinal cord, where they excite motor neurons, which in turn excite skeletal muscle cells.
In both the __ and the __ cortex, neurons are distributed in an orderly fashion according to the part of the body that generates the sensory input or receies the motor commands.
For example, neurons that process sensory info from the legs and feet are located in the region of the __ that lies closest to the midline. Neurons that control msucles in the legs and feet are located in the corresponding region of the __.
The __surface area devoted to each body part is not proportional to the size of the part. Instead, surface area correlates with the extent of neuronal control needed for muscles in a particular body part (for the __) or with the number of sensory neurons that extend axons to that part (for the __). Thus, the surface area of the __ devoted to the face is much larger than that devoted to the face is much larger than that devoted to the trunk, reflecting in large part how extensively facial muscles are involved in communication.
The region of the left frontal lobe, called __, is located in front of the part of the primary motor cortex that controls muscles in the face.
There is a posterior portion of the left temporal lobe, called __ which abolished the ability to comprehend speech but not the ability to speak.
__ and __ are part of a much larger network of brain regions involved in languatge. Reading a printed word without speaking activates the __, whreeas reading a printed word out loud activates both the __ and __.
visual cortex x2
__ and __ areas become active when meaning must be attached to words, like when a person generates verbs to go with nouns or groups related words or concepts.
Frontal and temporal
Although each cerebral hemisphere in humans has sensory and motor connectios to the oppostite side of the body, the two hemispeheres do not have identical functions. For ex., the left side of the cerebrum has a dominant role with regard ot language as reflected int he location of both __ and __ in the left hemisphere. There are also subtler distinctions in the functions of the two hemispheres. For ex., the left hemisphere is more adept at math and logical operations.
In contrast, the right hemisphere appears to be dominant in the recognition of faces and patterns, spatial relations, and nonverbal thinking. The establismment of these differences in hemisphere function in humans is called __.
At last some __ relates to handedness, the presference for using one hand for certain cmotor activities.
The two hemisphheres normally work together harmoniously, trading info back and forth through the fibers of the __. The importance of this exchange is revealed in patients whose __ has been surgically severed. As with removal of a cerebral hemisphere, this procedure is a treatment of last resort for the most extreme forms of __. Individuals with a severed __ exhibit a "Split-brain" effect. When htey see a familiar word in their left field of vision, they cannot read the word: The sensory info that travels fromt he left field of vision to the right hemisphere cannot rech the language centers in the left hemisphere. Each heisphere in such patients functions independently of the other.
corpus callosum x2
The generation and experience of emotions involve many regions of hte brain. One such region contains the __, a group of structures surrounding the brainstem in mammals.
THe __, which includes the __, the __ and parts of hte __, is not dedicated to a single function. Instead structures within the __ have diverse functions, including emotions, motivation, olfaction, behavior, and memory. Furthermore, parts of the brain outside hte __ also participate in generating and experiencing emotion.
limbec system x2
For example, emotions that manifest htemselves in behaviors such as laughing and crying involve an interaction of parts of hte __ with sensory areas of the cerebrum. Structures in the forebrain also attach emotional "feelings" to basic, survival- related functions controlled by the __, including aggression, feeding, and sexuality.
Emotional experiences are often stored as memories that can be recalled by similar circumstances. In the case of fear, emotional memory is stored separately from the memory system that suppports explicit recall of events. The focus of emotional memory is the __, which is located int he temporal lobe.
The __, a part of the frontal lobes critical for emotional experience, is also important in temperament and decision making.
tumors that develop in the __ sometiems cause the same cobo of symptoms that Gage experienced. Intellect and memory seem intact, but decision making is flawed and emotional responses are diminished.
- In the 20th century, the same problems were also observed as a consequence of frontal __, a surgical procedure that severs the connection between the __ and the __.
True or False:
The study of human consciousnes swas long considered outside the province of science, more appropriate as a subject for philosophy or religion. ONe reason for this view is that consciousness is both borad- encompassing our awareness of ourselves and our experienes- and subjective.
Support is growing for the hypthesis that __ is an emergent property of the brain, and that it recriuts activities in many areas of the cerebral cortex. Several models postulate the existene of a sort of "scanning mechanism" that repetitively sweeps across the brain, integrating widespread activity into a unified, conscious moment.