1. Define totipotent
    A stem cell with the capacity to give rise to a complete organism (zygote)
  2. Define pluripotent
    Stem cell with the capacity to give rise to all lineages
  3. 1. Define multipotential progenitor cells
    2. Define unipotential progenitor cells
    1. Progenitor cells giving rise to several cell lineages - NOT TRUE STEM CELLS

    2. Progenitor cells giving rise to a single cell type - NOT TRUE STEM CELLS
  4. 1. What type of cells have high levels of CD34?
    2. Low levels of CD34?
    • 1. Primitive hematopoietic cells
    • 2. Non stem cells AND extremely primitive stem cells
  5. 1. What type of cells have high levels of HLA-DR?
    2. Low levels of HLA-DR?
    • 1. Cells with restricted potential
    • 2. Stem cells
  6. Where are the following stem cells found?

    1. Embryonic stem cells
    2. Embryonic germ cells
    3. Adult stem cells
    • 1. Inner cell mass of blastocyst (totipotent)
    • 2. Fetal germ tisues, and embryonal cells from adult testicular/ovarian carcinomas
    • 3. Mature tissues - hematopoietic, mesenchymal, hepatic, neural
  7. Define therapeutic cloninc
    Placement of nucleus from adult organism into enucleated oocyte to harvest stem cells
  8. What types of mediators influence hematopoiesis?
    • Interleukins
    • Chemokines (chemoattractants)
    • Cytokines/growth factors
  9. What are stromal cells?
    Support for hematopoietic environment
  10. Define cellular adhesion and ID its associated proteins
    • Binding of a cell to another surface
    • Integrins, Fibronectin
    • Thrombospondin
    • Hemonectin
  11. 3 results of integrin binding
    • Adhesion modulated by changes in cytoskeleton
    • Up regulation of protein cascades
    • Gene regulation (JAK/STAT)
  12. What are mesenchymal stem cells?
    • Bone marrow stromal cells that are CD34 negative
    • Differentiation defined by microenvironment
  13. What are cardiomyocytes?
    • Muscle stem cells
    • Potential to repair muscle defects, heart damage
  14. Where are liver stem cells located?
    • Near portal tracts
    • Can treat: cirrhosis of liver, in-born metabolism errors
  15. What are hemangioblasts?
    • Primitive stem cell that develops into vascular system
    • May give rise to hematopoietic stem cells
  16. Where are neural stem cells located?
    Subependymal layers under lateral ventricles
  17. What are induced pluripotent stem cells?
    • somatic cells with reversal of gene expression
    • Dedifferentated - can be directed to new cell line
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