A stem cell with the capacity to give rise to a complete organism (zygote)
Stem cell with the capacity to give rise to all lineages
1. Define multipotential progenitor cells
2. Define unipotential progenitor cells
1. Progenitor cells giving rise to several cell lineages - NOT TRUE STEM CELLS
2. Progenitor cells giving rise to a single cell type - NOT TRUE STEM CELLS
1. What type of cells have high levels of CD34?
2. Low levels of CD34?
- 1. Primitive hematopoietic cells
- 2. Non stem cells AND extremely primitive stem cells
1. What type of cells have high levels of HLA-DR?
2. Low levels of HLA-DR?
- 1. Cells with restricted potential
- 2. Stem cells
Where are the following stem cells found?
1. Embryonic stem cells
2. Embryonic germ cells
3. Adult stem cells
- 1. Inner cell mass of blastocyst (totipotent)
- 2. Fetal germ tisues, and embryonal cells from adult testicular/ovarian carcinomas
- 3. Mature tissues - hematopoietic, mesenchymal, hepatic, neural
Define therapeutic cloninc
Placement of nucleus from adult organism into enucleated oocyte to harvest stem cells
What types of mediators influence hematopoiesis?
- Chemokines (chemoattractants)
- Cytokines/growth factors
What are stromal cells?
Support for hematopoietic environment
Define cellular adhesion and ID its associated proteins
- Binding of a cell to another surface
- Integrins, Fibronectin
3 results of integrin binding
- Adhesion modulated by changes in cytoskeleton
- Up regulation of protein cascades
- Gene regulation (JAK/STAT)
What are mesenchymal stem cells?
- Bone marrow stromal cells that are CD34 negative
- Differentiation defined by microenvironment
What are cardiomyocytes?
- Muscle stem cells
- Potential to repair muscle defects, heart damage
Where are liver stem cells located?
- Near portal tracts
- Can treat: cirrhosis of liver, in-born metabolism errors
What are hemangioblasts?
- Primitive stem cell that develops into vascular system
- May give rise to hematopoietic stem cells
Where are neural stem cells located?
Subependymal layers under lateral ventricles
What are induced pluripotent stem cells?
- somatic cells with reversal of gene expression
- Dedifferentated - can be directed to new cell line