1. Experimental Abilation
    destroying part of the brain and evaluating the animals subsaequent behavior; the functions can no longer be preformed in the region that abilation occured
  2. Lesion
    a wound or injury; lesion=experimental abilation
  3. ____ within the brain preform ____, not behaviors
    circuts, functions
  4. can one brain region or neural circut souley be responsible for behavior
  5. Excitotoxic lesion
    a method of producing brain lesions; intracerebral injection of an excitatory amino acid, such as kainic acid
  6. Sham lesion
    a method of produciong brain lesions; placebo procedure that duplicates all procedures of a brain lesion except for the step that actually causes the damage to the brain
  7. Radio frequency
  8. Stereotaxic surgury
    Brain surgury using a stereotaxic apparatus to position an electrode in a specified position of the brain
  9. Stereotaxic atlas
    a collection of drawings of sections of the brain of a particular animal with measurements that provide coordinates for the stereotaxic surgury
  10. hostological methods as it pertains to brain lesions
    they often miss the mark
  11. scanning electron microscope
    provides 3d information about the shape of the surface of a small object
  12. Anterograde labeling method
    a histological method that labels the axon and terminal buttons or neurons whose cell bodies are located in a particular region
  13. PHA-L
    a protein derived from kidney beans and used as an anterograde tracer; taken up by dendrites and cell bodies and carried to the ends of the axons
  14. Immunocytochemical method
    they take advantage of the immune reaction; a histological method; antibodies bond with a dye molecule to indicate the presense of particular proteins of peptides
  15. retrograde labeling method
    a histological method that labels cell bodies that give rise to the terminal buttons that form synapses with cells in a particular region
  16. flurogold
    retrograde labeling dye that is taken up by the terminal buttons and then carried back to the cell bodies
  17. Brain functions involve activity of circuts of _____; thus, diffrent perceptiona and behavioral rsponses involve diffrent ____ __ _______ in the brain
    neurons, patterns of activity
  18. EEG
    an electrical brain potential recorded by placing electrodes on the scalp; record electrical patterns of electrical activity
  19. MEG
    a procedure that detects groups of synchronously activated neurons by means of the magnetic field induced by their electrical activity; ueses an array od SQUIDs
  20. Microelectrode
    A very fine electrode, generally used to record activity of individual neurons
  21. Single-unit recording
    recording of the eectrical activity of a single neuron
  22. macroelectrode
    an electrode used to record the electrical activity of large numbers of neurons in a particular region of the brain
  23. Functional imaging
    a computerized method of detecting metabolic or chemical changes in particular regions of the brain
  24. PET scan
    a functional imaging method; reveals the localization of radioactive tracer in a living brain
  25. fMRI
    permits the measurement of regional metabolism in the brain
  26. MRI
    a technique whereby the interior of the body can be accurately imaged; involves the interaction between radio waves and a strong magnetic field
  27. CT scan
    a device tha employs ba computer to analize data obtained by a scanning beam of x-rays to produce a two-dimensional picture of a "slicde" trhough the body
  28. DTI
    an imaging method that uses a modified MRI scanner to reveal bundles of myelinated axons in the living human brain
  29. Stimulating neural activity: Chemical stimulation
    usually acomplished by injecting a small amount of exciatory amino acod, such as kainic acid or glutamic acid into the bain; stimulates neurons near the tip of the cannula, not axons passing through region
  30. TMS
    stimulation of the cerebral cortex by means of magnetic magnetic fields produced by passing pulses pf electricity through a coil of wire placed next to the skull
  31. ROD photoreceptors
    responsible for bringing light to the image or stimulus; peripherial vision ("on the side")
  32. Cone Photoreceptors
    responsible for bringing color to the image or stimulus
  33. Sensory Transduction
    the process by which sensory stimuli are transduced into slow, graded receptor potentials
  34. Fovea
    region of the retina that mediates the most acute vision of birds and higher mammals; color-sensitive cones constitute the only type of photoreceptor found here
  35. Optic disk
    exit point from the retina ganglion cell axons (fibers) that form the optic nerve; responsible for the blind spot
  36. Accomidation
    changes in the thickness of the lens of the eye, acomplished by the ciliary muscles, that focus images of near or distant objects on the retina
  37. Bipolar cells
    a bipolar neuron located in the kiddle layer of the retina, conveying information from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells
  38. ganglion cells
    a neuron located in the retina that recieves visual information from bipolar cells; its axons give rise to the optic nerve
  39. LGN
    a group of cell bodies wuthin the lateral geniculate body of the thalemus; recieves inputs from the retina and projects to the primary visual cortex
  40. LGN: Magnocellular layer
    transmits information necessary for the perception of form, movement, depth, and small diffrences in brighness to the primary visual cortex
  41. LGN: parvocellular layer
    transmits info necessary for perception of color and fine details to the primary visual cortex
  42. Optic Chaism
    the "cross roads" where the message crosses the visual field
  43. Receptive field
    tha portion of the visual field in which the presentation of visual stimuli will produce an alteration in te fireing rate of a particular neuron
Card Set
psych 260 exam 3