1. how soon will a pt succumb brain injury or death without adequate airway maintenance and ventilation
    6 to 10 mins
  2. presence of gas or air in the pleural cavity
  3. high pitched noise while inhaling
  4. bluish appearance
  5. difficulty speaking
  6. unable to speak
  7. what muscle
    directly supports the tongue &
    indirectly supports the epiglottis
  8. epiglottis may block the airway at the ?
  9. causes of airway obstruction
    • tongue (tftlea)
    • foreign bodies
    • trauma
    • laryngeal spasm
    • edema
    • aspiration
  10. large poorly chewed pieces of food can obstruct the upper airway by becoming lodged in the ?
    are commonly called ?
    • hypopharynx
    • cafe coronaries
  11. narrowest part of the adults airway
  12. swelling
  13. spasmotic closure
  14. inability to move air in and out of the respiratory system
  15. causes of laryngeal spasm and edema include
    • trauma
    • anaphylaxis
    • epiglottis
    • inhalation of superheated air, smoke, or toxic substanc
    • aggressive intubation
    • (taeia)
  16. most commonly aspirated material
  17. obtunded
  18. vomitus consists of
    • food particles
    • protein dissolving enzymes
    • hydrochloric acid
    • gastrointestinal bacteria
    • (fphg)
  19. what happens when vomitus enter the lungs
    it increases interstitial fluid and pulmonary edema
  20. gastrointestinal bacteria complications occur in________ percent of pt who aspirate foreign matter
    50 to 80
  21. one condition that the body s metabolic demand for oxygen can exceed the pt ability to supply iti
  22. _____ is the key to airway management in every patient
  23. absence of breath sounds on one side may indicate a
    pneumothorax or hemothroax
  24. asymmetrical chest wall movement that lessens respiratory efficiency
    paradoxical breathing
  25. defect in the chest wall that allows a segment to move freely, causing paradoxical chest wall movement
    flail chest
  26. making the pt condition better
  27. making the pt conditions worse
    exacerbates, aggravates
  28. early in respiratory compromise the __________system will be stimulated to help offset the lack of oxygen
    • sympathetic nervous system
    • pt will appear pale and diaphoretic
  29. cyanosis is considered a ______sign of resp compromise
    • late
    • usually affects the lips,fingernails,skin
  30. cherry red skin discoloration may be associated with
    carbon monoxide poisoning
  31. increased difficulty breathing while laying down
  32. abnormal of breathing rate, pattern, effort
  33. 02 deficiency
  34. absence or near absence of 02
  35. the brain can survive how long in a premorbid state
    4-6 mins
  36. usually causes by nasal irritation
  37. spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm with spastic closure of the glottis
  38. hyper-inflates the lungs and re-expands atelectative alveoli. occurs about once a min
  39. occurs against a partially closed epiglottis
  40. severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may sustain a ___________ during inspiration
    drop in BP
  41. deep slow or rapid gasping breathing commonly found in diabetic ketoacidosis
    kussmauls reparations
  42. progressively faster breathing alternating gradually with shallow slower breathing indicating brainstem injury
    cheyne-stokes respirations
  43. irregular pattern with rate and depth with sudden, periodic episodes of apnea, indicating increased intracranial pressure
    biots reparations
  44. deep rapid respirations indicating increased intracarnial pressure
    central neurogenic hyperventilation
  45. where is the apex
    just beneath the clavicle
  46. where is the bass
    8th or 9th intercostal space midclavicular line
  47. partial obstruction of the upper airway by the tongue
  48. accumulation of blood vomitus and other secretion in the upper airway
  49. musical squeaking or whistling sound heard in inspiration and expiration associated with bronchial constriction
  50. heard on inspiration associated with fluid in the smaller bronchioles
  51. rattling noise heard on inspiration associated with inflammation mucus or fluid in the bronchioles
  52. stiffness or flexibility of the lung tissue indicated by how easy air flow into the lungs
  53. tachycardia usually accompanies
    hypoxemia in adults
  54. bradycardia hints at
    anoxia with imminent cardiac arrest
  55. measure hemoglobin 02 sat in peripheral tissues
    pulse oximetry
  56. saturation of arterial blood with oxygen as measured by pulse oximetry expressed as a percentage
    oxygen saturation percentage(Sp02)
  57. Sp02 does correlate with

    the greater p02 the greater 02 sat
  58. what is often called the 5th vital sign
    pulse ox
  59. pulse ox readings between 91 and 94 percent indicate
    mild hypoxia
  60. 95 to 99 precent on pulse ox is
  61. pulse ox reading between 86 and 91 percent indicates
    moderate hypoxia
  62. pulse ox reading below 85 percent is considered
    severe hypoxia
  63. causes of false pulse ox readings include
    • carbon monoxide poisoning
    • high intensity light
    • certain hemoglobin abnormalities

  64. measurment of of hemoglobin 02 sat in the peripheral tissue
    pulse oximetry
  65. recording or display of the measurements of exhaled carbon dioxide concentration
  66. measurement of expired c02
    display of partial pressure of c02
  67. graphic recording or display of the capnometry reading over a time
  68. device that measures expired c02 level
  69. visual representation of the expired c02 waveform
  70. measurement of the c02 concentration at the end of expiration
    end tidal co2 (etc02)
  71. partial pressure of end tidal c02 in a mixed gas solution
  72. partial pressure of c02 in arterial blood
  73. co2 is transported by the ________ to the ________side of the heart
    • venous system
    • right side of the heart
  74. normal ETCO2 is ____mm less than the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pac02)
    1 to 2
  75. ETC02 is normally expressed as a ______
    PETC02 a partial pressure is expressed as______
    • percentage
    • mmHg
  76. ETCO2 levels reflect
    • pulmonary blood flow and cardiac output
    • not ventilation
  77. decreased ETC02 levels can be found in
    • shock
    • cardiac arrest
    • pulmonary embolism
    • bronchospasm
    • incomplete airway obstruction
    • (scpbi)
  78. increased ETC02 levels can be found in
    • hypoventilation
    • respiratory depression
    • hyperthermia

  79. CO2 is either detected by using a
    colorimetric or an infrared device
  80. disposable ETC02 detector
  81. colorimetric devices cannot detect
    hyper or hypocarbia

    c02 level
  82. sudden drop of ETC02 to zero could be from
    • esophageal intubation
    • ventilator disconnection of defect in ventilator
    • defect in co2 analyzer

  83. sudden decrease of ETC02
    • leak in ventilator system
    • partial disconnect in ventilator
    • partial airway obstruction (secretion)

  84. exponential decrease of ETC02
    • pulmonary embolism
    • cardiac arrest
    • hypotension
    • severe hyperventilation

  85. change in c02 baseline
    • calibration error
    • water droplet in analyzer
    • mechanical failure

  86. sudden increase in ETC02
    • accessing an area of the lung previously obstructed
    • release of tourniquet
    • sudden increase blood pressure

  87. gradual lowering of ETC02
    • hypovolemia
    • decreasing cardiac output
    • decreasing body temp

  88. gradual increase in ETC02
    • rising body temp
    • hyperventilation
    • c02 absorption
    • partial airway obstruction

  89. electronic ETC02 detector are either
    • qualitative (simply detect the C02)
    • quantitave ( determine how much c02)
  90. phase 1 in capnogram
    resp baseline
  91. phase 2 of capnogram
    resp upstroke
  92. phase3 of capnogram
    resp plateau
  93. phase 4 of capnogram
    inspiratory phase
  94. during cpr ETC02 levels have been found to correlate well with
    • cardiac output
    • coronary perfusion
  95. EDD( esophageal detector device) is contraindicated in
Card Set
resp problems and assessments