Nursing; Test III

  1. The production of blood
  2. Blood performs 3 makor functions
    Transportation, regulation, and protection
  3. composed primarily of water, contains proteins, electrolytes, gases, nutrients and waste
  4. Three types of Blood cells
    • Erythrocytes (RBC)
    • Leukocytes (WBC)
    • Thrombocytes (Platelets)
  5. Primary function is phagocytosis(a process by which WBCs engulf any unwanted organisms and kill them)
  6. Most common type of granulocytes
  7. Primary function is to initiate the clotting process by producing a platelet plug
  8. Blood clotting process
  9. A large component of the hematologic system
    Classified into 4 components: hematopoietic, filtration, immunologic and storage
  10. Conists of Lymph fluid, lymphatic capillaries, ducts, and lymph nodes
    Carries fluid from the interstitial space to the blood
    Lymph system
  11. Involves several lab tests, assessing the three major blood cells formed in the bone marrow
  12. measures the sedementation or settling of RBCs and is used to measure many diseases, especially inflammatory conditions
    ESR (Sed rate)
  13. Serum Iron
    Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC)
    serum ferritin
    transferrin saturation
    Tests to evaluate iron metabolism
  14. CT
    Radiologic studies for the hemotologic system, kidneys, spleen, liver and lymph nodes
  15. A deficiency in the # and or volume of RBCs, and the quantity of hemoglobin
  16. used to determine the severity of anemia
  17. Ultimate goal of anemia therapy
    Correct the cause
  18. may include blood transfusion, drug therapy, volume replacement, O2 therapy, diet/lifestyle changes,
    Interventions for correcting anemia
  19. may develop from inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, blood loss, or hemolysis
    Iron- deficiency anemia
  20. A group of diseases that has an autosomal-recessive genetic basis that involves inadequate production of normal hemoglobin
  21. -requires no treatment bc the body addapts (jaundice and enlarged spleen)
    -managed with blood trasfusions(life threatning, sympts develop in childhood, pale, enlarged spleen, hepatomegly, bone marrow hyperplasia)
    • -Thalassemia minor
    • -Thalassemia major
  22. A group of disorders caused by impaired DNA sythesis and characterized by the presence of large RBCs
    Megaloblastic anemias
  23. common form of Megaloblastic(large RBCs) Anemia
    results in poor absorption through the GI tract
    symptoms; sore tongue, anorexia, N/V, abd pain
    parenteral or intranasal administration is the Tx of choice
    Cobalamin (Vit B12) deficiency Anemia
  24. another common form of Megaloblastic anemia
    required for DNA synthesis leading to RBC formation and maturation
    treated by replacement therapy
    Folic Acid deficiency anemia
  25. -a disease in which the patient has a decrease of all blood cell types and hypocellular bone marrow
    -Tx includes finding and removing the causitive agent and providing support ; reverse isolation
    Aplastic anemia
  26. -A group of inherited, autosomal recessive disorders characterized by abnormally shaped (sickle shaped) RBCs; incurable and often fatal
    -episodes are most commonly triggered by low O2 tension in the blood
    -S/S; anemia, jaundice, pain, fever, swelling, HTN, N/V
    -Tx includes alleviating the symptoms and minimizing end target organ damage
    Sickle cell disease
  27. Low MCV (82-96)
    Microcytic size
  28. Low MCHC (31%-36%)
    hypochromic (pale) color of cell
  29. High MCV (82-96)
    Macrocytic (large and weak)
  30. -non differentiated immature blood cell found in bone marrow
    -all three types of blood cells develop from this
    -responds to increased demand for the dif types of cells
    Stem Cells
  31. -Transports O2, nutrients, hormones, and waste products
    -Assists in regulation of fluid, electrolyte and acid/base balance
    -Composed of plasma and blood cells
  32. -Arrives first to the site of infection
    -Primary function is phagocytosis
  33. -Found in large numbers in the GI tract and lungs
    -Contains histamine
    -Defends against parasites
  34. -Ignites immune response
    -Limited role in phagocytosis
    -Contains heparin, serotonin, and histamine
  35. Monocytes that have migrated into tissue
    -Called Kupffer cells
    -Called ostoclasts
    -Called Alveolar macrophages
    • Macrophages
    • -in Liver
    • -in bone
    • -in lungs
  36. -stored as ferritin and hemosiderin in bone marrow,spleen, liver and macrophages
    -recycled after macrophages ingest and destroy old,damaged RBCs
  37. -Initate clots
    -Life span of 5-7 days
    -Participate in clot shrinkage and reaction
  38. 1. Vascular response
    2. Platelet plug formation
    3. Development of fibrin clot of platelet plug by plasma clotting factors
    4. Lysis of clot
    4 components of normal hemostasis
  39. -Stores excess Iron
    -produces hepcidin
  40. -Able to produce RBCs during fetal development
    -Filters RBCs
    -Contains rich supply of Lymphocytes, monocytes, and immunoglobin
    -Stores RBCs and 30% of mass platelets
  41. Hgb, Hct, Differential, Platelet ct, ESR, Blood typing, RH factor, Bilirubin, Serum iron, TIBC, Ferritin
    Lab tests of the hematological system
  42. CT,MRI,Bone scan, Biopsies of bone marrow and lymph nodes, gene analysis
    Diagnostic studies of the hematological system
  43. -May exsist w/o symptoms
    -Possible symptoms
    - Palpations/dyspnea/diaphoresis
    Mild anemia (10-12)
  44. -symptoms of increased cardio symptoms at rest or on exertion
    Moderate anemia (6-10)
  45. symptoms of multiple body systems; skin(pallor, jaundice),eyes(pale),mouth(pale,dry),cardio(palpitations)
    Severe anemia (<6)
  46. -common symptoms of anemia; pallor being the most common
    -Swollen tongue is the second most common
    Iron Deficiency
  47. -Heartburn, constipation and diarrhea
    -Black stools
    side effects of Iron supplementation
  48. severe prolonged bleeding due to defective clotting
  49. -A reduction in the # of neutrophils
    -clients normal flora most common source of infection
    -S/S; diarrhea, sore throat, lesions, vaginal itching, SOB
    -pt usually in reverse isolation
Card Set
Nursing; Test III
Hematologic System (test III)