1. Define Iontophoresis
    Iontophoresis is the intro of medication ions into the human skin using a low voltage direct current
  2. Iontophoresis Electrode Setup
    • Uses a Monopolar
    • Active electrode is placed over the target tissues
    • Dispersive placed 4-6 inches away
    • Dispersive should be at least 4 times the size of the active electrode
  3. How does the Electrical Charge help get the Medication into the skin?
    • Current carries ions between the two poles
    • Primary entry in hair follicles and skin pores.
  4. How much Electrical current is needed for Iontophoresis?
    • The applied current must eb sufficient to overcome the skin/electrode resistance
    • Must still have enought energy to drive the miedication through the skin's portals
    • There is a decreased resistance to electrical current flow as treatment progresses
  5. Amount of Ion Transfer
    • The number of ions transferred through the skin is directly related to:
    • Duration of the Treatment
    • Current Density
    • Concentration of the ions in the solution
  6. What happens to the medicaion once it is in the tissue?
    • Once in the tissue the medication is spread through passive diffusion
    • No longer affected by the vurrent source
    • Medication remains more highly concentrated in tissue directly under the active electrode
  7. Medication Dosage
    • Meausre in Milliamperes per minute (mA/min)
    • Based on the relationship between the intensity and treatment duration
  8. Types of Medication
    • Anti-inflammatory: Dex-neg, Hydrocortisone-pos
    • Analgesia: Lidocaine, Xylocaine-pos, Salicylate-Neg
    • Edema Reduction: Hyaluronidase-pos
    • Muscle Spasm: Calcium, Magnesium-pos
    • Can mix different medication as long as they are the same charge
  9. Biophysical Effects
    • Medication pentrates 6-20mm
    • Local blood flow increases for 1hr after Rx.
    • May have small bumps under electrodes post Rx
    • With anti-inflammatory or anesthetic may take 24-48hrs post Rx for affects.
  10. Galvanic Rash
    • Allergic reaction to the direct current.
    • Will see a rash around electorde normally after 5min of Rx
  11. Treatment Time
    • Expressed in mA-minutes
    • 20-40mins
  12. Indications
    • Acute or chronic Inflammtion
    • Arthritis
    • Myositis ossificans
    • Myofascial pain syndromes
    • local Anesthetic before injection
    • Hyperkidrosis
  13. Contraindications
    • Cardiac Arrhytima
    • Over the Cartiod sinus area
    • Hypersensitivity -strong adverion to electricity
    • Certain types of catheters and shunts
    • Known problemw with medicaiton used in treatment
  14. Precautions
    • Most medication require a physician precriptions- pay close attention to any motes or instructions provided by the pharmacist
    • The exact dosage of the medication delivered to the body is unknown
    • Erthema under the electrodes is common after Rx
    • DO not reuse electrodes becuase medication can remain in it
    • To high of an intensity can cause burns
    • Poor treatment techniques on the part of the therapist is most often respoinsilble for adverse reactions to ionto
  15. Advantages of Iontophoreisi
    • Bypass the liver
    • Medication can be concentrated in a local area rather than be asorbed in the GI tract
    • Less trumatic than injections
  16. Disadvantages of Iontophoresis
    • Unreliable results are obtained with certain medications
    • In children the anxiety cuase by ionto was not significantly less than that of an injection
    • cutaneous anesthesia derived from an injection is more toerable that than obtained through ionto
    • Burns or severe skin irritation are problems inherent to the application of DC on the human body
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